1. Release Type 2. Natural enemy 3. Year/Place Released 4. Target pest 5. Host Range Evidence 6. Specificity 7. Outcomes References
Parasitoid

Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff
Encyrtidae

For species description, see Noyes and Schauff (2003). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2000 USA, Florida (from Mexico) (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated)Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. No other host records in literature. Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts.
Family or lower
Pseudococcidae (known only from the target pest)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Florida, USA (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated; Amarasekare et al., 2009).
Establishment:Established in Florida (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated; Amarasekare et al., 2009).
Impact:In a cage exclusion test after parasitoid establishment, a cohort of mealybugs was reduced by exposure to parasitism by 58% in the open-sleeve cage (vs. closed cage) and by 73% in the no-cage treatment. Two parasitoids contributed to control (A. papayae and Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menzes), but 93% of parasitism was due to A. papayae (Amarasekare et al., 2009).
Amarasekare et al., 2009
Noyes and Schauff, 2003
Noyes, 2017
UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated
Parasitoid

Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff
Encyrtidae

For species description, see Noyes and Schauff (2003). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2000 USA, Puerto Rico (from Mexico via Florida USA quarantine) (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated)Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. No other host records in literature. Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts.
Family or lower
Pseudococcidae (known only from the target pest)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Puerto Rico (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated).
Establishment:Established in Puerto Rico (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated).
Impact:A group of 5 parasitoids were released and suppressed the mealybug density by 97%, with parasitism levels of 35–58% (Mani et al., 2012 [original sources unpub.]). The dominant parasitoid was Acerophagus sp. (Mani et al., 2012 [original sources unpub.]), later described as A. papaya (Noyes and Schauff, 2003).
Mani et al., 2012
Noyes and Schauff, 2003
Noyes, 2017
UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated
Parasitoid

Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff
Encyrtidae

For species description, see Noyes and Schauff (2003). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2002 USA, Guam (from Mexico via Florida USA quarantine via Puerto Rico) (G. Reddy, pers. comm.; Meyerdirk et al., 2004)Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. No other host records in literature. Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts.
Family or lower
Pseudococcidae (known only from the target pest)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Guam (G. Reddy, pers. comm.; Meyerdirk et al., 2004).
Establishment:Established in Guam (G. Reddy, pers. comm.; Meyerdirk et al., 2004).
Impact:In Guam, within 1 year, the mealybug density was reduced by 99% due to the group of parasitoids released (Meyerdirk et al., 2004).
G. Reddy, pers. comm.
Meyerdirk et al., 2004
Noyes and Schauff, 2003
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Adelencyrtus oceanicus Doutt
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists two synonyms: Adelencyrtus oceanica (Doutt]) and Anabrolepis oceanica Doutt.
1988–1989 USA, Guam (from two of the western Caroline Islands, Ulithi and Koror, [Muniappan and Marutani, 1989]; see also Doutt [1951] for original location of species detection and description)Furcaspis oceanica (Lindinger)
Diaspididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. No other host records in literature. Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts.
Unknown
E+/I+
Release:Released in Guam (Muniappan and Marutani, 1989).
Establishment:Established in Guam (Lali and Muniappan, 1996).
Impact:In a 2002 survey (Muniappan et al., 2003), the released parasitoid, A. oceanicus, was found throughout Guam and the red coconut scale, F. oceanica, was at very low levels compared to a similar survey done in 1996 (Lali and Muniappan, 1996), and high rates of parasitism by A. oceanicus were detected in 2002 (Muniappan et al., 2003).
Doutt, 1951
Lali and Muniappan, 1996
Muniappan and Marutani, 1989
Muniappan et al., 2003
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Ageniaspis citricola Logvinovskaya
Encyrtidae

For species description, see Logvinovskaya (1983). The Taiwanese population known as A. citricola is likely a distinct species within a cryptic species complex Hoy et al., 2000). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1994 USA, Florida (from Thailand via Australia) (Smith and Hoy, 1995)Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton
Gracillariidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done relative to U.S. species before release. Specificity assumed based on testing in Australia against that fauna. For Australia, 0 non-target species were attacked from a test list including 1 Phyllocnistis leafminer, 4 gracillariid leafminers in other genera, and 14 other foliovores, leafminers, or gall makers in other families (Neale et al., 1995). No other host records in literature. Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts.
Unknown in relation to North American fauna
E+/I+
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Smith and Hoy, 1995; Hoy and Nguyen, 1997).
Establishment:Established in Florida (Pomerinke and Stansly, 1998).
Impact:Life table analysis showed that overall mortality was about 89% for the pest, dominated by ant predation on younger larvae. Ageniaspis citricola was the dominant parasitoid on older larvae (8–29%) but this was insufficient to check pest population growth in citrus, with a remaining innate rate of increase of about 2.8-fold per generation (Xiao et al., 2007). A similar study in Alabama (USA) again found predators to play a larger role than parasitoids in lifetables for this pest (Xiao and Fadamiro, 2010). However, a study by Hoy et al. (2007a) in central Florida citrus found that this parasitoid caused 33–39% mortality in leafminers in the summer flush and was an important mortality factor in the system. See also Michaud (2002a) for more on separating contributions of native predators and introduced parasitoids in this system.
Hoy and Nguyen, 1997
Hoy et al., 2000
Hoy et al., 2007a
Logvinovskaya, 1983
Michaud, 2002a
Neale et al., 1995
Noyes, 2017
Pomerinke and Stansly, 1998
Smith and Hoy, 1995
Xiao and Fadamiro, 2010
Xiao et al., 2007
Parasitoid

Ageniaspis citricola Logvinovskaya
Encyrtidae

For species description, see Logvinovskaya (1983). The Taiwanese population known as A. citricola is likely a distinct species within a cryptic species complex Hoy et al., 2000). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1997–1999 Mexico: Colima (1997), Veracruz (1999) (from Thailand via Australia via Florida USA) (Bautista-Martínez et al., 2008)Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton
Gracillariidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done relative to Mexican species before release. Specificity assumed based on testing in Australia against that fauna. For Australia, 0 non-target species were attacked from a test list including 1 Phyllocnistis leafminer, 4 gracillariid leafminers in other genera, and 14 other foliovores, leafminers, or gall makers in other families (Neale et al., 1995). No other host records in literature. Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts.
Unknown in relation to North American fauna
E+/I-
Release:Released in Mexico (Bautista-Martínez et al., 2008).
Establishment:Established in Colima, but not in Veracruz (Bautista-Martínez et al., 2008).
Impact:In Colima, rates of parasitism of 6–12% resulted, but it was judged that the introduction had limited impact on the pest’s density (Bautista-Martínez et al., 2008).
Bautista-Martínez et al., 2008
Hoy et al., 2000
Logvinovskaya, 1983
Neale et al., 1995
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman)
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists various synonyms, principally (1) Ageniaspis praysincola Silvestri, (2) Encyrtus cyanocephalus (Bouché), (3) Encyrtus cyanocephalus Goureau, (4) Encyrtus fuscicollis Dalman, (5) Holcothorax fuscicollis (Dalman), (6) Pteromalus cyanocephalus Bouché, and other minor variations on the above.
1987–1990 Canada, British Columbia (from Switzerland) (Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2002)Yponomeuta malinellus (Zeller)
Yponomeutidae

Given formerly as Hyponomeuta malinellus
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Known literature hosts include twelve yponomeutids and one acrolepiid: (1) Yponomeuta padella L. (Hamiti et al., 2011); (2) Prays oleae (Bernard) (Kos and Trdan, 2011); (3) Yponomeuta evonymellus (L.) (Lee and Pemberton, 2009); (4) Yponomeuta malinellus Zeller (Lee and Pemberton, 2007); (5–8) as laboratory hosts: Yponomeuta cagnagellus (Hübner), Yponomeuta rorellus (Hübner), Yponomeuta evonymellus, and Yponomeuta padellus (probably padella) (Cleary and van Ginkel, 2004); (9) Yponomeuta mahalebellus Gershenzon (Slavgorodskaya-Kurpieva, 1986); (10) Argyresthia pruniella (Cl.) (Govoni, 1982); (11–12) Yponomeuta irrorellus (Hübner) and Yponomeuta plumbellus (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Mamedov and Makhmudova-Kurbanova, 1982); (13) Yponomeuta cagnagella (Hubner) (=Yponomeuta cognatellus) (Nenon, 1976); and (14), as a laboratory host, the acrolepiid moth Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zell.) (Pralavorio et al., 1977). Noyes (2017) lists 18 species of yponomeutids in 7 genera: 2 species of tortricids, 1 noctuid, and 2 coccids. The coccid records may need confirmation.
Family?
Yponomeutidae (12 species in 3 genera, plus 1 species in another family used in laboratory mass-rearing)
E+/I+
Release:Released in British Columbia, Canada (Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2002).
Establishment:Established in British Columbia (Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2002).
Impact:A correlative study showed an inverse relationship between parasitism by this species and pest density (Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2000), with parasitism of the target pest up to 23% (Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2007).
Cleary and van Ginkel, 2004
Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2000
Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2002
Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2007
Govoni, 1982
Hamiti et al., 2011
Kos and Trdan, 2011
Lee and Pemberton, 2007
Lee and Pemberton, 2009
Mamedov and Makhmudova-Kurbanova, 1982
Nenon, 1976
Noyes, 2017
Pralavorio et al., 1977
Slavgorodskaya-Kurpieva, 1986
Unruh et al., 2003
Parasitoid

Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman)
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists various synonyms, principally (1) Ageniaspis praysincola Silvestri,(2) Encyrtus cyanocephalus (Bouché), (3) Encyrtus cyanocephalus Goureau, (4) Encyrtus fuscicollis Dalman, (5) Holcothorax fuscicollis (Dalman), (6) Pteromalus cyanocephalus Bouché, and other minor variations on the above.
1988–1991 USA, Washington state (from France, South Korea, China, and Russia) (Unruh et al., 2003)Yponomeuta malinellus (Zeller)
Yponomeutidae

Given formerly as Hyponomeuta malinellus
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Known literature hosts include twelve yponomeutids and one acrolepiid: (1) Yponomeuta padella L. (Hamiti et al., 2011); (2) Prays oleae (Bernard) (Kos and Trdan, 2011); (3) Yponomeuta evonymellus (L.) (Lee and Pemberton, 2009); (4) Yponomeuta malinellus Zeller (Lee and Pemberton, 2007); (5–8) as laboratory hosts: Yponomeuta cagnagellus (Hübner), Yponomeuta rorellus (Hübner), Yponomeuta evonymellus, and Yponomeuta padellus (probably padella) (Cleary and van Ginkel, 2004); (9) Yponomeuta mahalebellus Gershenzon (Slavgorodskaya-Kurpieva, 1986); (10) Argyresthia pruniella (Cl.) (Govoni, 1982); (11–12) Yponomeuta irrorellus (Hübner) and Yponomeuta plumbellus (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Mamedov and Makhmudova-Kurbanova, 1982); (13) Yponomeuta cagnagella (Hubner) (=Yponomeuta cognatellus) (Nenon, 1976); and (14), as a laboratory host, the acrolepiid moth Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zell.) (Pralavorio et al., 1977). Noyes (2017) lists 18 species of yponomeutids in 7 genera: 2 species of tortricids, 1 noctuid, and 2 coccids. The coccid records may need confirmation.
Family?
Yponomeutidae (12 species in 3 genera, plus 1 species in another family used in laboratory mass-rearing)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Washington state, USA (Unruh et al., 2003).
Establishment:Established in Washington state (Unruh et al., 2003).
Impact:Parasitism of the pest at 22 monitored sites in Washington increased from <5% in 1989 to nearly 25% after A. fuscicollis established and spread (by 1993), with more than 90% of the total parasitism being due to the introduced species. This increase in parasitism was accompanied by a decline in catch of male moths in pheromone traps from 10 per trap per day to about 1 per trap by 1995, suggesting substantial control of the pest over the 1989–1995 period (Unruh et al., 2003).
Cleary and van Ginkel, 2004
Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2002
Govoni, 1982
Hamiti et al., 2011
Kos and Trdan, 2011
Lee and Pemberton, 2007
Lee and Pemberton, 2009
Mamedov and Makhmudova-Kurbanova, 1982
Nenon, 1976
Noyes, 2017
Pralavorio et al., 1977
Slavgorodskaya-Kurpieva, 1986
Unruh et al., 2003
Parasitoid

Ageniaspis testaceipes (Ratzburg)
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists various synonyms, principally (1) Ageniaspis nepticulae (Mayr), (2) Encyrtus testaceipes Ratzeburg, (3) Holcothorax nepticulae Mayr, (4) Holco thorax testaceipes (Ratzeburg), (5) Holcothorax vellutatus Askew, and other minor variations on the above.
1988 USA, Connecticut (from Japan via Canada) (Maier, 1993, 1994)Phyllonorycter crataegella (Clemens)
Gracillariidae

Formerly in Lithocolletis
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Limited to the ecological niche of leafminers on deciduous trees. Most literature records are gracillariid leafmining moths in Phyllonorycter, including P. blancardella (F.) (Kadubowski, 1981), P. ringoniella (Matsumura) (Sun et al., 1987), and P. pyrifoliella (Gerasimov) (Kharchenko and Ryabchinskaya, 1995). However, one record is of the gelechiid (Lepidoptera) leafminer Recurvaria syrictis Meyrick (Cao and Guo, 1987). This last record needs verification. Noyes (2017) lists as hosts 22 species in Gracillariidae: 17 species of Lithocolletis and 5 species of Phyllonorycter that are not also listed as species of Lithocolettis, as well as 1 in Lyonetiidae and 1 in Nepticulidae.
Family?
Gracillariidae (22 species in 2 genera, plus 3 records in other families) This is a parasitoid of leafmining moth larvae in mines on deciduous trees, especially gracillariid moths in Lithocolletis or Phyllonorycter.
E+/I+
Release:Released in Connecticut, USA (Maier, 1993, 1994).
Establishment:Established in Connecticut, USA (Maier, 1993).
Impact:Ageniaspis testaceipes caused 12–22% parasitism but only in unsprayed orchards (Maier, 1993) and so did not reduce target pest in most commercial orchards.
Cao and Guo, 1987
Kadubowski, 1981
Kharchenko and Ryabchinskaya, 1995
Maier, 1993
Maier, 1994
Noyes, 2017
Sun et al., 1987
Parasitoid

Aleiodes nr circumscriptus (Nees)
Braconidae

A species from the target pest in India on mango was later described as A. circumscriptus (Rajeshwari and Chacko, 1992). But the circumscriptus species group poses taxonomic problems, and issues may remain.
1986–1987 USA, Guam (from India) (Nafus, 1991)Penicillaria jocosatrix Guenée
Noctuidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release.
Unknown
E-/I-
Release:Released in Guam (Nafus, 1991).
Establishment:This species did not establish in Guam (Nafus, 1991).
Impact:This parasitoid, since it failed to establish, had no impact on the target pest. But other species of parasitoids introduced in this project did reduce the pest damage: (1) Blepharella lateralis Macquart (Tachinidae) and (2) Euplectrus nr parvulus Ferrière (Eulophidae) (Nafus, 1991).
Nafus, 1991
Rajeshwari and Chacko, 1992
Parasitoid

Allotropa nr mecrida (Walker)
Platygastridae

Species identity is uncertain.
2003 USA, California (from Egypt, where it was the most common parasitoid of the pest [Gonzalez et al., 2003]) (Roltsch et al., 2006)Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)
Pseudococcidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. Four non-target species tested; no parasitism in 4 mealybugs from 3 other genera (Pseudococcus, Paracoccus, and Phenacoccus); 1 non-target species affected by host feeding (Roltsch et al., 2007). The related Allotropa mecrida is known from several mealybugs (e.g., Planococcus citri [Risso] [Niyazov, 1969], Planococcus ficus Signoret [Yasnosh et al., 2001], and Phenacoccus mespili Signoret [Ibadova, 1985]). However, it is not certain if the introduced species and A. mecrida are the same.
Genus?
Pseudococcidae (species composition unknown due to uncertainties with agent identification)
E-/I-
Release:Released in California, USA (Roltsch et al., 2006).
Establishment:This species did not establish in California (Roltsch et al., 2006).
Impact:Not applicable
Gonzalez et al., 2003
Ibadova, 1985
Niyazov, 1969
Roltsch et al., 2006
Roltsch et al., 2007
Yasnosh et al., 2001
Parasitoid

Amitus bennetti Viggiani & Evans
Platygasteridae

Species described from Bemisia tabaci (Viggiani and Evans, 1992).
1990–1994 USA, Florida and later in the western USA (from Puerto Rico) (Nguyen and Bennett, 1995; Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No field hosts recorded other than Bemisia tabaci.
Family or lower
Aleyrodidae (known only from the target pest)
E?/I?
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Nguyen and Bennett, 1995).
Establishment:Potentially established in Florida (Nguyen and Bennett, 1995).
Impact:In California, in field cages (stocked with parasitoids from Florida), A. bennetti caused 20–54% mortality on cotton and beans, respectively (Joyce and Bellows, 2000).
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Joyce and Bellows, 2000
Nguyen and Bennett, 1995
Viggiani and Evans, 1992
Parasitoid

Anagyrus californicus (Compere)
Encyrtidae

Native to Central America and Mexico. Noyes (2017) lists two synonyms: Apoanagyrus californicus Compere and Epidinocarsis californicus (Compere).
2000 USA, Florida (from Mexico) (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated) Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. Field host records include Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green in Cuba (Ceballos Vázquez et al., 2016) and Phenacoccus solani Ferris (Poinar, 1964). Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts.
Family
Aleyrodidae (3 species in 3 genera)
E?/I?
Release:Released in Florida, USA (see UF/IFAS, undated, and grey literature cited therein; same information repeated in Mani et al. [2016]).
Establishment:Establishment in Florida is not recorded.
Impact:Impact in Florida is not recorded.
Ceballos Vázquez et al., 2016
Mani et al., 2016
Noyes, 2017
Poinar, 1964
UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated
Parasitoid

Anagyrus californicus (Compere)
Encyrtidae

Native to Central America and Mexico. Noyes (2017) lists two synonyms: Apoanagyrus californicus Compere and Epidinocarsis californicus (Compere).
2000 USA, Puerto Rico (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated)Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. Field host records include Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green in Cuba (Ceballos Vázquez et al., 2016) and Phenacoccus solani Ferris (Poinar, 1964). Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts.
Family
Aleyrodidae (3 species in 3 genera)
E+/I-
Release:Released in Puerto Rico (see UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated, and grey literature cited therein; same information repeated in Mani et al. [2016]).
Establishment:Established in Puerto Rico (see UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated, and grey literature cited therein; same information repeated in Mani et al. [2016]).
Impact:As a group, the parasitoids released into Puerto Rico for control of papaya mealybug were highly successful, causing a 97% reduction at research sites in Puerto Rico, with parasitism levels between 35.5% and 58.3%. However, most of this impact was due to Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated) and the role of A. californicus, if any, is unrecorded.
Ceballos Vázquez et al., 2016
Mani et al., 2016
Noyes, 2017
Poinar, 1964
UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated
Parasitoid

Anagyrus kamali Moursi
Encyrtidae

For species description, see Moursi (1948). Noyes (2017) lists six synonyms:(1) Anagyrus comperei Subba Rao and Rai; (2) Anagyrus flavidus Shafee, Alam and Agarwal; (3) Anagyrus flavus Agarwal; (4) Anagyrus hayati Sushil and Khan; (5) Anagyrus mohani Sushil and Khan; and (6) Anagyrus nigroradiclatus Subba Rao and Rai.
1998 USA, Puerto Rico (from China and Hawaii USA - mixed colony) (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture) Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)
Pseudococcidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. Of 8 non-target mealybugs tested (Planococcus citri Risso, Planococcus halli Ezzat and McConnell, Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell, Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius, Saccharicoccus sacchari [Cockerell], Puto barberi [Cockerell], Nipaecoccus nipae [Maskell], and Plotococcus neotropicus Williams & Granara de Willink), 2 non-target species of Planococcus were attacked but failed to support complete development (Sagarra et al., 2001). Noyes (2017) lists 6 additional mealybugs as hosts: (1) Ferrisia virgata Cockerell, (2) Formicococcus robustus (Ezzat & McConnell), (3) Naiacoccus serpentinus Green, (4) Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell), (5) Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), and (6) Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley.
Family
Pseudococcidae (9 species in 7 genera)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Puerto Rico (Kairo et al., 2000; Michaud and Evans, 2000).
Establishment:Established in Puerto Rico (Kairo et al., 2000).
Impact:Control of the pest was successful in Puerto Rico (Kairo et al., 2000; Michaud and Evans, 2000; W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture).
Kairo et al., 2000
Michaud and Evans, 2000
Moursi, 1948
Noyes, 2017
Sagarra et al., 2001
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Parasitoid

Anagyrus kamali Moursi
Encyrtidae

For species description, see Moursi (1948). Noyes (2017) lists six synonyms:(1) Anagyrus comperei Subba Rao and Rai; (2) Anagyrus flavidus Shafee, Alam and Agarwal; (3) Anagyrus flavus Agarwal; (4) Anagyrus hayati Sushil and Khan; (5) Anagyrus mohani Sushil and Khan; and (6) Anagyrus nigroradiclatus Subba Rao and Rai.
1999–2006 USA: California (1999), Florida (2000), Louisiana (2006) (from China, Hawaii USA, and Egypt-mixed colony) (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture; see also Roltsch et al., 2006)Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)
Pseudococcidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. Of 8 non-target mealybugs tested (Planococcus citri Risso, Planococcus halli Ezzat and McConnell, Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell, Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius, Saccharicoccus sacchari [Cockerell], Puto barberi [Cockerell], Nipaecoccus nipae [Maskell], and Plotococcus neotropicus Williams & Granara de Willink), 2 non-target species of Planococcus were attacked but failed to support complete development (Sagarra et al., 2001). Noyes (2017) lists 6 additional mealybugs as hosts: (1) Ferrisia virgata Cockerell, (2) Formicococcus robustus (Ezzat & McConnell), (3) Naiacoccus serpentinus Green, (4) Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell), (5) Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), and (6) Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley.
Family
Pseudococcidae (9 species in 7 genera)
E+/I+
Release:Released in California, Florida, and Louisiana in the USA (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture; Roltsch et al., 2006).
Establishment:Established in southern California (Rolsch et al., 2006). Establishment in Florida and Louisiana not recorded.
Impact:Control of the pest was successful in California, due to several released natural enemies (95% reduction); A. kamali was the dominant summer parasitoid with up to 50% parasitism; Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam & Agarwal was an important winter parasitoid (Roltsch et al., 2006).
Moursi, 1948
Noyes, 2017
Roltsch et al., 2006
Sagarra et al., 2001
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Parasitoid

Anagyrus kamali Moursi
Encyrtidae

For species description, see Moursi (1948). Noyes (2017) lists six synonyms:(1) Anagyrus comperei Subba Rao and Rai; (2) Anagyrus flavidus Shafee, Alam and Agarwal; (3) Anagyrus flavus Agarwal; (4) Anagyrus hayati Sushil and Khan; (5) Anagyrus mohani Sushil and Khan; and (6) Anagyrus nigroradiclatus Subba Rao and Rai.
1999 USA, U.S. Virgin Islands (from China and Hawaii USA-mixed colony) (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture)Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)
Pseudococcidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. Of 8 non-target mealybugs tested (Planococcus citri Risso, Planococcus halli Ezzat and McConnell, Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell, Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius, Saccharicoccus sacchari [Cockerell], Puto barberi [Cockerell], Nipaecoccus nipae [Maskell], and Plotococcus neotropicus Williams & Granara de Willink), 2 non-target species of Planococcus were attacked but failed to support complete development (Sagarra et al., 2001). Noyes (2017) lists 6 additional mealybugs as hosts: (1) Ferrisia virgata Cockerell, (2) Formicococcus robustus (Ezzat & McConnell), (3) Naiacoccus serpentinus Green, (4) Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell), (5) Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), and (6) Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley.
Family
Pseudococcidae (9 species in 7 genera)
E+/I+
Release:Released in the U.S. Virgin Islands (Kairo et al., 2000).
Establishment:Established in the U.S. Virgin Islands (Kairo et al., 2000).
Impact:Control of the pest was successful in the U.S. Virgin Islands (Kairo et al., 2000; W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture).
Kairo et al., 2000
Moursi, 1948
Noyes, 2017
Sagarra et al., 2001
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Parasitoid

Anagyrus kamali Moursi
Encyrtidae

For species description, see Moursi (1948). Noyes (2017) lists six synonyms:(1) Anagyrus comperei Subba Rao and Rai; (2) Anagyrus flavidus Shafee, Alam and Agarwal; (3) Anagyrus flavus Agarwal; (4) Anagyrus hayati Sushil and Khan; (5) Anagyrus mohani Sushil and Khan; and (6) Anagyrus nigroradiclatus Subba Rao and Rai.
1999 Mexico, Baja California (from China and Hawaii USA-mixed colony via Puerto Rico) (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture; Santiago-Islas et al., 2008)Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)
Pseudococcidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. Of 8 non-target mealybugs tested (Planococcus citri Risso, Planococcus halli Ezzat and McConnell, Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell, Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius, Saccharicoccus sacchari [Cockerell], Puto barberi [Cockerell], Nipaecoccus nipae [Maskell], and Plotococcus neotropicus Williams & Granara de Willink), 2 non-target species of Planococcus were attacked but failed to support complete development (Sagarra et al., 2001). Noyes (2017) lists 6 additional mealybugs as hosts: (1) Ferrisia virgata Cockerell, (2) Formicococcus robustus (Ezzat & McConnell), (3) Naiacoccus serpentinus Green, (4) Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell), (5) Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), and (6) Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley.
Family
Pseudococcidae (9 species in 7 genera
E+/I+
Release:Released in Baja California, Mexico (Santiago-Islas et al., 2008).
Establishment:Established in Mexico (Santiago-Islas et al., 2008).
Impact:Consequences of local mass releases of A. kamali (in combination with Cryptolaemus montrouzieri [Mulsant]) on M. hirsutus density were monitored in Mexico in several crops, and pest declines were observed that were at least in part due to A. kamali (Santiago-Islas et al., 2009).
Moursi, 1948
Noyes, 2017
Sagarra et al., 2001
Santiago-Islas et al., 2008
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Parasitoid

Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menzes
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2000 USA, Florida (from Mexico) (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated; Amarasekare et al., 2009) Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts recorded in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists 2 additional mealybugs as hosts: (1) Dysmicoccus sp. and (2) Phenacoccus madeirensis Green.
Family
Aleyrodidae (3 species in 3 genera)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Florida, USA (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated; Amarasekare et al., 2009).
Establishment:Established in Florida (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated; Amarasekare et al., 2009).
Impact:In a cage exclusion test after establishment of several papaya mealybug parasitoids, a cohort of mealybugs was reduced by exposure to parasitism by 58% in the open-sleeve cage (vs. closed cage) and by 73% in the no-cage treatment. Two parasitoids contributed to control (Acerophagus papayae and Anagyrus loecki), but 93% of parasitism was due to A. papayae (Amarasekare et al., 2009).
Amarasekare et al., 2009
Noyes, 2017
UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated
Parasitoid

Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menzes
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2000 USA, Puerto Rico (from Mexico via Florida USA quarantine)Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts recorded in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists 2 additional mealybugs as hosts: (1) Dysmicoccus sp. and (2) Phenacoccus madeirensis Green.
Family
Aleyrodidae (3 species in 3 genera)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Puerto Rico (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated).
Establishment:Established in Puerto Rico (UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated).
Impact:A group of 5 parasitoids were released and suppressed the mealybug density by 97%, with parasitism levels of 35–58% (Mani et al., 2012 [original sources unpub.]). However, the dominant parasitoid was Acerophagus sp. Mani et al., 2012 [original sources unpub.]), later described as A. papayae (Noyes and Schauff, 2003). While A. loecki established, its value to control is not reported.
Mani et al., 2012
Noyes and Schauff, 2003
Noyes, 2017
UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated
Parasitoid

Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menzes
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2002 USA, Guam (from Mexico via Florida quarantine via Puerto Rico) (Meyerdirk et al., 2004)Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts recorded in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists 2 additional mealybugs as hosts: (1) Dysmicoccus sp. and (2) Phenacoccus madeirensis Green.
Family
Aleyrodidae (3 species in 3 genera)
E?/I?
Release:Released in Guam (Meyerdirk et al., 2004).
Establishment:Establishment not recorded in Guam.
Impact:The complex of parasitoids released reduced the pest by 99% within one year, but most of the impact was due to Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff (Meyerdirk et al., 2004). The contribution of A. loecki to control is not reported.
Meyerdirk et al., 2004
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Anagyrus nr pseudococci Girault
Encyrtidae

This undescribed species is not the same as A. pseudococci and is recognized by place of origin, being either Spain or Israel, in contrast to A. pseudococci, which is originally from Argentina, but also is adventive in parts of Italy (Sicily) (S. Triapitsyn, pers. comm.). For lack of confirmed species identity, Noyes (2017) could not be consulted for synonyms or literature hosts.
2001 Mexico, Sonora (from a commercial insectary in Spain) (Klotz et al., 2002; Fu-Castillo, 2008)Planococcus ficus (Signoret)
Pseudococcidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. Testing was done with A. nr pseudococci against its co-evolved native host, Planococcus ficus, the Afrotropical Planococcus citri (Risso), the Australasian Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), the Neotropical Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, and the Neotropical Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink. The parasitoid completed development in all species to varying degrees, with the lowest rates in P. viburni and P. peruvianus (Bugila et al., 2015). Field hosts of entities given as “A. pseudococci” or “A. nr pseudococci” but not “the A. pseudococci group” include (1) Rastrococcus iceryoides Green (Tanga et al., 2016); (2) Planococcus citri (Risso) (Attia and Awadallah, 2016); (3) Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel (Yigit and Telli, 2013); (4) Nipaecoccus viridis Newstead (Ghanbari et al., 2013); (5) Lecanodiaspis africana Newstead (Lecanodiaspididae) (Morsi, 2010); (6) Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana) (Guerrieri and Pellizzari, 2009); (7) Delottococcus confusus (DeLotto) (Pseudococcidae) (Leandro et al., 2008); (8) Planococcus vovae (Nasonov) (Lotfalizadeh and Ahmadi, 2000); (9) Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell) (Abd-Rabou, 2000a); (10) Pseudococcus affinis (Maskell) (Islam and Jahan, 1992); (11) Antonina graminis (Maskell) (Gabriel, 1983); (12) Phenacoccus gossypii Townsend & Cockerell (Coquis and Salazar, 1975); (13) Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell) (El-Haidari et al., 1974).
Family?
Pseudococcidae (16 species in 8 genera, plus one record in the Lecanodiaspididae). The host range of Anagyrus nr pseudococci is not certain due to confusion with another entity given in the literature as Anagyrus pseudococci.
E+/I?
Release:Released in Sonora, Mexico (Klotz et al., 2002; Fu-Castillo, 2008).
Establishment:Established in Mexico (Fu-Castillo, 2008).
Impact:No information available.
Abd-Rabou, 2000a
Attia and Awadallah, 2016
Bugila et al., 2015
Coquis and Salazar, 1975
El-Haidari et al., 1974
Fu-Castillo, 2008
Gabriel, 1983
Ghanbari et al., 2013
Guerrieri and Pellizzari, 2009
Islam and Jahan, 1992
Klotz et al., 2002
Leandro et al., 2008
Lotfalizadeh and Ahmadi, 2000
Morsi, 2010
S. Triapitsyn, pers. comm.
Tanga et al., 2016
Yigit and Telli, 2013
Parasitoid

Anagyrus pseudococci Girault
Encyrtidae

This species was described as Epidinocarsis pseudococci by Girault (1915) and appears to be identical with the species introduced in about 1999 to California from Argentina (Tryapitzyn and Tryapitzyn, 1999; Triapitsyn et al., 2007). Other forms in the literature under this name are a separate entity (Triapitsyn et al., 2007). “Anagyrus pseudococci” was introduced in the 1948–1956 period to California from Brazil against Planococcus citri and later recovered (Bartlett and Lloyd, 1958) and this is now believed to be a distinct, unnamed species (Triapitsyn et al., 2007). For lack of confirmed species identity, Noyes (2017) could not be consulted for synonyms or literature hosts.
About 1999 USA, California (from Argentina) (Tryapitzyn and Tryapitzyn, 1999)Planococcus ficus (Signoret)
Pseudococcidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. Testing was done with A. nr pseudococci against its co-evolved native host, Planococcus ficus, the Afrotropical Planococcus citri (Risso), the Australasian Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), the Neotropical Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, and the Neotropical Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink. The parasitoid completed development in all species to varying degrees, with the lowest rates in P. viburni and P. peruvianus (Bugila et al., 2015). Field hosts of entities given as “A. pseudococci” or “A. nr pseudococci” but not “the A. pseudococci group” include (1) Rastrococcus iceryoides Green (Tanga et al., 2016); (2) Planococcus citri (Risso) (Attia and Awadallah, 2016); (3) Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel (Yigit and Telli, 2013); (4) Nipaecoccus viridis Newstead (Ghanbari et al., 2013); (5) Lecanodiaspis africana Newstead (Lecanodiaspididae) (Morsi, 2010); (6) Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana) (Guerrieri and Pellizzari, 2009); (7) Delottococcus confusus (DeLotto) (Pseudococcidae) (Leandro et al., 2008); (8) Planococcus vovae (Nasonov) (Lotfalizadeh and Ahmadi, 2000); (9) Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell) (Abd-Rabou, 2000a); (10) Pseudococcus affinis (Maskell) (Islam and Jahan, 1992); (11) Antonina graminis (Maskell) (Gabriel, 1983); (12) Phenacoccus gossypii Townsend & Cockerell (Coquis and Salazar, 1975); (13) Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell) (El-Haidari et al., 1974).
Family?
Pseudococcidae (16 species in 8 genera, plus one record in the Lecanodiaspididae) Note also that the named species (Anagyrus pseudococci, as used here for the entity introduced in 1999 to California by Tryapitzyn and Tryapitzyn [(1999]) is confused in the literature with other forms also given as Anagyrus pseudococci. Therefore, the breadth of host range of the entity introduced in 1999 to California is not certain.
E+/I?
Release:Released in California, USA (Tryapitzyn and Tryapitzyn, 1999).
Establishment:Established in California (Tryapitzyn and Tryapitzyn, 1999).
Impact:No information available.
Abd-Rabou, 2000a
Attia and Awadallah, 2016
Bartlett and Lloyd, 1958
Bugila et al., 2015
Coquis and Salazar, 1975
El-Haidari et al., 1974
Gabriel, 1983
Ghanbari et al., 2013
Girault, 1915
Guerrieri and Pellizzari, 2009
Islam and Jahan, 1992
Leandro et al., 2008
Lotfalizadeh and Ahmadi, 2000
Morsi, 2010
Tanga et al., 2016
Triapitsyn et al., 2007
Tryapitzyn and Tryapitzyn, 1999
Yigit and Telli, 2013
Parasitoid

Anaphes nitens (Girault)
Mymaridae

Noyes (2017) lists five synonyms: (1) Anaphes gonipteri (Ferrière), (2) Anaphoidea gonipteri Ferrière, (3) Anaphoidea nitens Girault, (4) Patasson nitens (Girault), (5) Yungaburra nitens (Girault), and some related variations of these names.
1994 USA, California (from Australia; proximal source not clear)Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal
Curculionidae

See Mapondera et al. (2012) for notes on cryptic species in this genus.
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. The only other literature host records are Gonipterus gibberus Boisduval (Sanches, 2000) and Gonipterus platensis (Noyes, 2017).
Genus
Curculionidae (3 species in 1 genus, Gonipterus)
E+/I+
Release:Released in California, USA (Hanks et al., 2000).
Establishment:Established in California (Hanks et al., 2000).
Impact:In California, this parasitoid caused 95% egg parasitism and controlled the pest (Hanks et al., 2000).
Hanks et al., 2000
Mapondera et al. 2012
Noyes, 2017
Sanches, 2000
Parasitoid

Apanteles murinanae Čapek and Zwölfer
Braconidae

1990 eastern Canada (from Europe)Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens)
Tortricidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. This species was collected from the closely related species, Choristoneura murinana (H?bner), and, after confirming its ability to develop in the target host, was released in Canada as a single release (Smith et al., 2002). The only other known field host is Eucosma nigricana (H.-S.), another tortricid of similar biology as C. murinana, with which it shares a common tree host and habitat (?apek, 1961).
Family
Tortricidae (3 species in 2 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in eastern Canada (Smith et al., 2002).
Establishment:Did not establish in eastern Canada (Smith et al., 2002).
Impact:Not applicable
ÄŒapek, 1961
Smith et al., 2002
Parasitoid

Aphantorhaphopsis samarensis (Villeneuve)
Tachinidae

Formerly in Ceranthia.
1991 Canada, Ontario, New Brunswick (from Europe) (Nealis and Quednau, 1996; Nealis et al., 2002)Lymantria dispar (L.)
Erebidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Apart from the target host, only one literature record exists: Orgyia recens (Hübner) (Lymantriinae) (Fuester et al., 2014). Based on laboratory host range testing and field collections in Europe, Fuester et al (2001) describe the host range as limited to 2 genera, Lymantria and Orgyia.
Subfamily
Erebidae (Lymantriinae) (2 species in 2 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in eastern Canada (Mills and Nealis, 1992; Nealis and Quednau, 1996).
Establishment:Did not establish in Canada (Fuester et al., 2014).
Impact:Not applicable
Fuester et al., 2001
Fuester et al., 2014
Mills and Nealis, 1992
Nealis and Quednau, 1996
Nealis et al., 2002
Parasitoid

Aphantorhaphopsis samarensis (Villeneuve)
Tachinidae

Formerly in Ceranthia.
1992 USA, northeastern states (from Europe) (Fuester et al., 2014)Lymantria dispar (L.)
Erebidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release (Fuester et al., 2001). Apart from the target host, only one literature record exists: Orgyia recens (Hübner) (Lymantriinae) (Fuester et al., 2014). Based on laboratory host range testing and field collections in Europe, Fuester et al. (2001) describe the host range as limited to 2 genera, Lymantria and Orgyia.
Subfamily
Erebidae (Lymantriinae) (2 species in 2 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in the northeastern United States (Fuester et al., 2014).
Establishment:Did not establish in North America (Fuester et al., 2014).
Impact:Not applicable
Fuester et al., 2001
Fuester et al., 2014
Mills and Nealis, 1992
Nealis and Quednau, 1996
Parasitoid

Aphelinoidea anatolica Nowicki
Trichogrammatidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1995 USA, California (from Iran) (Walker et al., 1997).Circulifer tenellus (Baker)
Cicadellidae

Formerly in Neoaliturus
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts are recorded in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no additional species as hosts.
Unknown
E+/I-
Release:This species was first released in the United States in 1951 (Huffaker et al., 1954), but establishment did not occur. A second release was made in 1995 (Walker et al., 1997).
Establishment:Established in California (Bayoun et al., 2008).
Impact:Levels of parasitism of beet leafhopper eggs from A. anatolica were too low to contribute significantly to control (Bayoun et al., 2008).
Bayoun et al., 2008
Huffaker et al., 1954
Noyes, 2017
Walker et al., 1997
Parasitoid

Aphelinoidea turanica Trjapitzin
Trichogrammatidae

For species description, see Trjapitzin (1994). Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Aphelinoidea scythica Fursov.
1993 USA, California (from Turkmenistan) (Walker et al., 1997)Circulifer tenellus (Baker)
Cicadellidae

Formerly in Neoaliturus
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts are recorded in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no additional species as hosts.
Unknown
E+/I-
Release:Released in California, USA (Walker et al., 1997).
Establishment:Established in California (Bayoun et al., 2008).
Impact:Levels of parasitism of beet leafhopper eggs from A. turanica were too low to contribute significantly to control (Bayoun et al., 2008).
Bayoun et al., 2008
Noyes, 2017
Trjapitzin, 1994
Walker et al., 1997
Parasitoid

Aphelinus asychis Walker
Aphelinidae

Species identity of A. asychis relative to other closely related populations was initially unknown but was determined after introduction in further studies (Kazmer et al., 1996; Zhu and Fang, 2009). Because of confusion as to which species within Aphelinus were released against Russian wheat aphid (RWA), statements made here on species identities (and as a consequence, literature hosts) were confirmed by Jim Woolley, Texas A&M and Keith Hopper, USDA directly, rather than relying on Noyes (2017). That clarified events as follows: only two species of Aphelinus are known to have been released against RWA in the USA: (1) Aphelinus asychis, which may have been present in the United States from the 1960s, but regardless, it turned out not to be very important; and (2) Aphelinus atriplicis, which established and is the most abundant introduced RWA parasitoid, but which is widely misreported in field studies in the literature as Aphelinus albipodus (Hayat & Fatima). Species that were not released, but whose names appear in the USA RWA literature were Aphelinus albipodus and Aphelinus varipes (Foerster). The former species does not occur geographically in the areas from which RWA parasitoids were collected for use in the USA, and the latter species does not attack RWA (Hopper et al., 2017). Another species, Aphelinus hordei (Kurdjumov), is a highly specific parasitoid of RWA (Hopper et al., 2017) that may have been accidentally included in shipments of RWA parasitoids to the USA but misidentified at the time. As such, it may have been released, but there is no clear evidence to prove that or of its current presence in the USA (K. Hopper, pers. comm.)
1990–1992 USA: Texas (1990) (Michels and Whitaker-Deerberg, 1993); many western states (1992) (Elliott et al., 1995; Burd et al., 2001) (from France, China, and Kazakhstan) Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov)
Aphididae

Russian wheat aphid (RWA)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Older literature host records may be unreliable due to confusion in separating members of the species complex. Hosts recorded under this name since Kazmer et al. (1996)’s definition of the species include the following species list below. However, some of these may still refer to other closely related parasitoids. (1) Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Milevoj, 1996); (2) 14 or 15 aphid species of 16 tested were attacked and supported development in laboratory trials (Elliott et al., 1999); (3) Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Rao et al., 1999); (4) Chromaphis juglandicola (Kaltenbach) (Talebi et al., 2002); (5) Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Snyder et al., 2004); (6) Aphis gossypii Glover (Schirmer, 2006); (7) Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Valério et al., 2006); (8) Aphis glycines Matsumura (Kaiser et al., 2007); (9) Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Sanchez et al., 2011). Safe to non-aphids, but many non-target aphids in Aphididae are attacked, on a variety of plants (Hopper et al., 2017). Population impacts on these non-target aphids unknown.
Family
Aphididae
E+/I-
Release:Released in Colorado and other western U.S. states (Elliott et al., 1995; Burd et al., 2001) and in Texas, USA (Michels and Whitaker-Deerberg, 1993).
Establishment:Appears to be established in Colorado and surrounding states (Elliott et al., 1995; Burd et al., 2001), in Texas (Michels and Whitaker-Deerberg, 1993), and in Washington state (Pike et al., 1997). However, given that A. asychis from Europe was released in Texas and Oklahoma in the 1960s for control of Schizaphis graminum, it is not clear that the A. asychis released against D. noxia established. It (regardless of origin) was not recovered in high numbers from RWA in sampling by K. Hopper or others (K. Hopper, pers. comm.).
Impact:While present, A. nr asychis was only a minor parasitoid of Russian wheat aphid in the northcentral USA plains in 2001–2002, ca 9–10 years after release (Noma et al., 2005; see also Burd and Puterka, 2012). It was infrequently detected by Brewer et al. (2005) in the USA Great Plains region, suggesting it is of minor or no importance for control of RWA in that area.
Brewer et al., 2005
Burd and Puterka, 2012
Burd et al., 2001
Elliott et al., 1995
Elliott et al., 1999
Hopper et al., 2017
J. Woolley, pers. comm.
K. Hopper, pers. comm.
Kaiser et al., 2007
Kazmer et al., 1996
Michels and Whitaker-Deerberg, 1993
Milevoj, 1996
Noma et al., 2005
Pike et al., 1997
Rao et al., 1999
Sanchez et al., 2011
Schirmer, 2006
Snyder et al., 2004
Talebi et al., 2002
Valério et al., 2006
Zhu and Fang, 2009
Parasitoid

Aphelinus atriplicis Kurdjumov
Aphelinidae

Because Aphelinus atriplicis, after its release and collection in the western USA, was routinely misidentified as Aphelinus albipodus (Hayat & Fatima), much of the documentation of A. atriplicis’ effect on Russian wheat aphid (RWA) populations is reported under the name A. albipodus, a species that likely has never been released in the USA (K. Hopper, pers. comm.). Because of confusion as to which species within Aphelinus were released against Russian wheat aphid (RWA), statements made here on species identities (and as a consequence, literature hosts) were confirmed by Jim Woolley, Texas A&M and Keith Hopper, USDA directly, rather than relying on Noyes (2017). That clarified events as follows: only two species of Aphelinus are known to have been released against RWA in the USA: (1) Aphelinus asychis, which may have been present in the United States from the 1960s, but regardless, it turned out not to be very important; and (2) Aphelinus atriplicis, which established and is the most abundant introduced RWA parasitoid, but which is widely misreported in field studies in the literature as Aphelinus albipodus (Hayat & Fatima). Species that were not released, but whose names appear in the USA RWA literature were Aphelinus albipodus and Aphelinus varipes (Foerster). The former species does not occur geographically in the areas from which RWA parasitoids were collected for use in the USA, and the latter species does not attack RWA (Hopper et al., 2017). Another species, Aphelinus hordei (Kurdjumov) is a highly specific parasitoid of RWA (Hopper et al., 2017) that may have been accidentally included in shipments of RWA parasitoids to the USA but misidentified at the time. As such, it may have been released, but there is no clear evidence to prove that or of its current presence in the USA (K. Hopper, pers. comm.).
1992 USA, many western states (from Central Asia) (Hopper et al., 1998; Prokrym, 1998; Heraty et al., 2007)Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov)
Aphididae

Russian wheat aphid (RWA)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records unreliable due to confusion in separating members of species complex. Safe to non-aphids, but many non-target aphids in Aphididae are attacked, on a variety of plants (Hopper et al., 2017). Population impacts on these non-target aphids are unknown.
Family
Aphididae
E+/I+
Release:Released in the western United States (Hopper et al., 1998; Prokrym, 1998; Heraty et al., 2007).
Establishment:This species is widely established in the western United States on Russian wheat aphid (K. Hopper, pers. comm. and references cited for release).
Impact:This is the most important introduced, established parasitoid of RWA in the western USA. However, much of the literature has misidentified it as Aphelinus albipodus (K. Hopper, pers. comm.).
Heraty et al., 2007
Hopper et al., 1998
Hopper et al., 2017
J. Woolley, pers. comm.
K. Hopper, pers. comm.
Prokrym, 1998
Parasitoid

Aphelinus glycinis Hopper and Woolley
Aphelinidae

2012 USA, Minnesota (from China) (Hopper and Diers, 2014)Aphis glycines Matsumura
Aphididae

HRT+
Laboratory host range testing done before release. No non-target attacks on aphids outside of the genus Aphis (based on testing 5 species in 4 other genera) (Hopper, 2010; USDA APHIS, 2012). Of 7 non-target Aphis species, 4 were suitable for parasitism, while 3 were not (Hopper, 2010; USDA APHIS, 2012).
Genus
Aphididae (4 species in 1 genus, Aphis)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Minnesota, USA (Hopper and Diers, 2014).
Establishment:Did not establish in Minnesota (G. Heimpel, pers. comm.).
Impact:Not applicable
G. Heimpel, pers. comm.
Hopper and Diers, 2014
Hopper, 2010
USDA APHIS, 2012
Parasitoid

Aphelinus spiraecolae Evans & Schauff
Aphelinidae

For species description, see Evans et al. (1995). Noyes (2017) lists no other synonyms.
1995 USA, Florida (from Guangdong Province, China) (see Table 2, p. 159 of Frank and McCoy, 2007)Aphis spiraecola Patch
Aphididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. Other literature hosts include Aphis gossypii Glover and Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) (Yokomi and Tang, 1995). Noyes (2017) lists no additional species as hosts.
Family
Aphididae (3 species in 2 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (see Table 2, p. 159 of Frank and McCoy, 2007).
Establishment:No evidence for establishment in Florida (see Table 2, p. 159 of Frank and McCoy, 2007).
Impact:Not applicable
Evans et al., 1995
Frank and McCoy, 2007
Noyes, 2017
Yokomi and Tang, 1995
Parasitoid

Aphidius colemani Viereck
Braconidae

1999 USA, Hawaii (from Australia) (R. Messing, pers. comm.; Acebes and Messing, 2013a)Aphis gossypii Glover
Aphididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. The species is known to attack only aphids, which provides adequate specificity for use in Hawaii, as Hawaii has no native aphids. Literature host records are summarized by Benelli et al (2014) and include 21 aphid species, in 13 genera, especially species in the genus Aphis.
Family
Aphididae (21 species in 13 genera, especially Aphis). This is a polyphagous pantropical aphid parasitoid, commonly used for augmentative biocontrol of aphids in greenhouses in many countries (van Lenteren, 2012).
E-/I-
Release:Released in Hawaii (Acebes and Messing, 2013a).
Establishment:Established in Hawaii (Acebes and Messing, 2013a; Messing and Klungness, 2001).
Impact:On taro (Colocasia esculenta L.), A. colemani parasitism of A. gossypii was very low (<3%), likely due to high levels of hyperparasitism and high levels of fungal infections in aphids (Rhainds and Messing, 2005).
Acebes and Messing, 2013a
Benelli et al., 2014
Messing and Klungness, 2001
R. Messing, pers. comm.
Rhainds and Messing, 2005
Starý, 1975
van Lenteren, 2012
Parasitoid

Aphidius rhopalosiphi de Stefani-Perez
Braconidae

1988–1992 USA, Washington state (from Turkey and Morocco) (Tanigoshi et al., 1995)Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov)
Aphididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Biotypes of this species may exist that have different host ranges (Höller, 1991). Hosts recorded in the literature include (1) Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Gruber et al., 1994) and (2-4) Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Sitobion avena (Fabricius), and Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) (Rakhshani et al., 2008).
Family
Aphididae (5 species in 5 genera; perhaps just species in the Aphidini and Macrosiphini [Cameron et al., 2013])
E-/I-
Release:Released in Washington state, USA (Tanigoshi et al., 1995).
Establishment:Assumed not to have established in Washington state.
Impact:Not applicable
Cameron et al., 2013
Gruber et al., 1994
Höller, 1991
Rakhshani et al., 2008
Tanigoshi et al., 1995
Parasitoid

Aphytis sankarani Rosen and DeBach
Aphelinidae

For species description, see Rosen and DeBach (1986). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2002 USA, Florida (from Thailand) (see Table 4, pp. 153 & 164 of Frank and McCoy, 2007)Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Cooley)
Diaspididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Noyes (2017) lists 2 additional species as hosts: Aonidiella aurantii Maskell and Parlatoria pergandii Comstock.
Family
Diaspididae (3 species in 3 genera)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Florida, USA (see Table 4, pp. 153 & 164 of Frank and McCoy, 2007).
Establishment:Established in Florida (H. Glenn, pers. comm. [TREC, Homestead] to Howard Frank [Univ. Florida, Dept. Entomology and Nematology]).
Impact:No information available.
Frank and McCoy, 2007
H. Glenn, pers. comm. (TREC, Homestead) to Howard Frank (Univ. Florida, Dept. Entomology and Nematology)
Noyes, 2017
Rosen and DeBach, 1986
Parasitoid

Aphytis yanonensis DeBach & Rosen
Aphelinidae

For species description, see DeBach and Rosen (1982). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1990–1995 USA, Massachusetts, New Jersey (from China) (Van Driesche et al., 1998a; Matadha et al., 2003)Unaspis euonymi (Comstock)
Diaspididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Known field hosts include Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana) (Diaspididae) (DeBach and Rosen, 1982) and the target pest, from which it is was reared in quarantine from U. euonymi collected in China (Van Driesche, unpub. data), while Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) (Diaspididae) is a laboratory host (Matadha et al., 2005). Noyes (2017) lists no additional species as hosts.
Genus?
Diaspididae (2 species in 1 genus [Unaspis], plus 1 species in another genus used as a laboratory-rearing host)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Massachusetts (Van Driesche et al., 1998a) and New Jersey, USA (Matadha et al., 2003).
Establishment:Not established in Massachusetts (O’Reilly and Van Driesche, 2009) or New Jersey. (Matadha et al., 2005).
Impact:Not applicable
DeBach and Rosen, 1982
Matadha et al., 2003
Matadha et al., 2005
Noyes, 2017
O’Reilly and Van Driesche, 2009
Van Driesche et al., 1998a
Van Driesche, unpub. data
Parasitoid

Aprostocetus vaquitarum (Wolcott)
Eulophidae

Previously misidentified in the literature as Tetrastichus gala (Walker) or Aprostocetus gala, a different species attacking leafhopper or cecidomyiid fly eggs. Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Tetrastichus vaquitarum Wolcott.
2000 USA, Florida (from the Dominican Republic) (Peña et al., 2004; Jacas et al., 2005)Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)
Curculionidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Wolcott (1924) describes this parasitoid and records it as parasitizing eggs of the weevil Lachnopus coffeae Marshall in Puerto Rico. Post-release studies determined that the native root weevil Pachnaeus litus (Germar), a minor pest of citrus, is a suitable host (in the laboratory) for A. vaquitarum, but another native weevil and minor pest of citrus in Florida, Artipus floridanus Horn, was not. Both weevils have oviposition habits similar to D. abbreviatus (Jacas et al., 2010). Noyes (2017) lists one additional host species, Donacivola saccharella (Lepidoptera: Elaschisidae), which needs confirmation.
Family?
Curculionidae (3 species in 3 genera, plus 1 record in another family that is in need of confirmation) It is believed this parasitoid attacks eggs of weevils whose eggs are concealed in plant tissues.
E+/I+
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Peña et al., 2004; Jacas et al., 2005).
Establishment:Established in southern Florida (Peña et al., 2004; Jacas et al., 2005).
Impact:At release sites in the Miami/Dade County area of southern Florida, levels of parasitism of the pest’s eggs were 70–90% (Peña et al., 2004).
Jacas et al., 2005
Jacas et al., 2010
Noyes, 2017
Peña et al., 2004
Wolcott, 1924
Parasitoid

Aroplectrus dimerus Lin
Eulophidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2010 USA, Hawaii (from Taiwan) (J. Yalemar, pers. comm., Hawaii Department of Agriculture).Darna pallivitta (Moore)
Limacodidae

HRT+
Laboratory host range testing was done before release. None of the 25 non-target Lepidoptera tested in Hawaii were attacked. There are no native limicodids in Hawaii. Tests included species in 13 families with 2 endemic species and 19 immigrant pests (HDOA, 2007). Aroplectrus dimerus has been recorded attacking 6 limacodids in the Philippines (Cock et al., 1987): (1) Darna mindanensis Holloway, (2) Penthocrates albicapitata Holloway, (3) Penthocrates rufa Holloway, (4) Penthocrates rufofascia Holloway, (5) Penthocrates styx Holloway, and (6) Penthocrates zelaznyi Holloway. In India, the limacodid Parasa bicolor Walker is also a recorded host (Singh et al., 1988). Noyes (2017) lists no additional species as hosts.
Family
Limacodidae (7 species in 3 genera) In Hawaii there are no native limacodids.
E+/I+
Release:Released widely in Hawaii from 2010–2013 (J. Yalemar, pers. comm., Hawaii Department of Agriculture).
Establishment:The parasitoid is now established throughout Hawaii (J. Yalemar, pers. comm., Hawaii Department of Agriculture).
Impact:By 2011, pest larval numbers had declined by 80–100% in HDOA survey sites (J. Yalemar, pers. comm., Hawaii Department of Agriculture).
Cock et al., 1987
HDOA, 2007
J. Yalemar, pers. comm., Hawaii Department of Agriculture
Noyes, 2017
Singh et al., 1988
Parasitoid

Banacuniculus utilis (Beardsley)
Figitidae

One synonym: Ganaspidium utilis, which is the name under which literature appears.
1985 USA, Guam (from Texas USA via Hawaii USA) (Beardsley, Jr. 1988; Johnson and Wilson, 1995)Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)
Agromyzidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. The only other host recorded in the literature is Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Beardsley, Jr. 1988).
Genus
Agromyzidae (2 species in 1 genus, Liriomyza)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Guam (Johnson and Wilson, 1995).
Establishment:Established in Guam (Johnson and Wilson, 1995).
Impact:“It became the dominant parasitoid on beans, where it parasitizes up to 78% of all the L. trifolii larvae infesting the crop. Leafminer densities decreased dramatically and are no longer a problem in unsprayed bean plantings” (Johnson and Wilson, 1995).
Beardsley, Jr. 1988
Buffington, 2004
Buffington, 2010
Johnson and Wilson, 1995
Parasitoid

Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday)
Braconidae

Formerly in Trioxys.
1989–1990 USA, California (from the former Czechoslovakia) (Starý, 1990)Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko)
Aphididae

All species in Ganaspidium are parasitoids of agromyzids (Buffington, 2004, 2010).
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Hosts from the literature include aphids in several genera: (1) Myzus cerasi (F.) (Wimshurst, 1925); (2) Cavariella sp. (Tremblay, 1975); and (3) Hyadaphis coriandri (Das) (Mescheloff and Rosen, 1993).
Family
Aphididae (4 species in 4 genera)
E+/I+
Release:Released in California, USA (Daane et al., 1992, 1995a).
Establishment:Established in some counties in California (Daane et al., 1992, 1995a).
Impact:Impact limited (about 10% parasitism, shortly after release) (Daane et al., 1992).
Buffington, 2004
Buffington, 2010
Daane et al., 1992
Daane et al., 1995a
Mescheloff and Rosen, 1993
Starý, 1990
Tremblay, 1975
Wimshurst, 1925
Parasitoid

Binodoxys communis (Gahan)
Braconidae

For separation from other members of species complex see Desneux et al. (2009a).
2006 USA, Minnesota (from China) (Wyckhuys et al., 2009)Aphis glycines Matsumura
Aphididae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. In laboratory host range testing related to work in Minnesota, Desneux et al (2009b) found that 8 Aphis species and 1 non-Aphis aphid species tested were suitable for parasitism. See also Desneux et al. (2012) for information on determinants of host specificity in B. communis. In laboratory host-range testing in Hawaii, 2 non-native Aphis species were highly suitable while 4 non-native, non-Aphis species were either not suitable or marginally so (Acebes and Messing, 2013b). Hosts from the literature include (1) Aphis gossypii Glover (Shi, 1980); (2) Aphis citricola van der Goot (Ng and Starý, 1986); (3) Toxoptera citricidus (Kirkaldy) (Calilung, 2008); and (4) Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Lomerio and Calilung, 2008).
Family
Aphididae (15 species [including the target] in 4 genera [Aphis, Rhopolosiphum, Toxoptera, and Pentalonia], with most species [10] being in Aphis). For native Aphis spp, risk modeling based on ant-tending and phenological overlap suggest high exposure for Aphis asclepiades Fitch, but low exposure for Aphis oestlundi Gillette; ant tending suggests medium exposure for Aphis monardae Oestlund (Wyckhuys et al., 2007).
E-/I-
Release:Released in Minnesota, USA (Wyckhuys et al., 2009).
Establishment:Not established in Minnesota, likely due to loss of effective diapause mechanisms (Gariepy et al., 2015).
Impact:Not applicable
Acebes and Messing, 2013b
Calilung, 2008
Desneux et al., 2009a
Desneux et al., 2009b
Desneux et al., 2012
Gariepy et al., 2015
Lomerio and Calilung, 2008
Ng and Starý, 1986
Shi, 1980
Wyckhuys et al., 2007
Wyckhuys et al., 2009
Parasitoid

Binodoxys communis (Gahan)
Braconidae

2010 USA, Hawaii (from China via Minnesota USA) (R. Messing, pers. comm.; Acebes, 2011)Aphis gossypii Glover
Aphididae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing was done before release. In laboratory host-range testing in Hawaii, 2 non-native Aphis species were highly suitable while 4 non-native, non-Aphis species were either not suitable or marginally so (Acebes and Messing, 2013b). In laboratory host range testing related to work in Minnesota, Desneux et al (2009b) found that 8 Aphis species and 1 non-Aphis aphid species tested were suitable for parasitism. See also Desneux et al. (2012) for information on determinants of host specificity in B. communis. Hosts from the literature include (1) Aphis gossypii Glover (Shi, 1980); (2) Aphis citricola van der Goot (Ng and Starý, 1986); (3) Toxoptera citricidus (Kirkaldy) (Calilung, 2008); and (4) Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Lomerio and Calilung, 2008).
Family
Aphididae (15 species [including the target] in 4 genera [Aphis, Rhopolosiphum, Toxoptera, and Pentalonia], with most species [10] being in Aphis). Safe for use in Hawaii because there are no native aphids or weed biocontrol aphids in Hawaii.
E+/I-
Release:Released in Hawaii (Acebes, 2011).
Establishment:Established in Hawaii (Acebes, 2011).
Impact:Parasitism remained low, perhaps due to high levels of hyperparasitism, and there was no change in the pest’s density (Acebes, 2011).
Acebes and Messing, 2013b
Acebes, 2011
Calilung, 2008
Desneux et al., 2009b
Desneux et al., 2012
Lomerio and Calilung, 2008
Ng and Starý, 1986
R. Messing, pers. comm.
Shi, 1980
Parasitoid

Blepharella lateralis Macquart
Tachinidae

1986–1987 USA, Guam (from India) (Nafus, 1991)Penicillaria jocosatrix Guenée
Noctuidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Hosts recorded in the literature include (1) Euproctis lunata (Walker) (Erebidae) (Battu and Dhaliwal, 1977); (2) Spilosoma obliqua Walker (Erebidae) (Kumar and Yadav, 1987); and (3) Olepa (formerly Pericallia) ricini (Fabricius) (Arctiidae) (Venkatesha et al., 1993).
Order
LEPIDOPTERA: Noctuidae (the target pest), Arctiidae (1 species), Erebidae (2 species in 2 genera)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Guam (Nafus, 1991).
Establishment:Established in Guam (Nafus, 1991).
Impact:“The wasps Aleiodes sp. [given here as Aleiodes nr circumscriptus] and Euplectrus sp. [given here as Euplectrus nr parvulus] and the fly Blepharella lateralis were released. Aleiodes sp. did not establish, but Euplectrus sp. and B. lateralis did. [Due to the 2 established species,] populations of the pest fell to 25% of their pre-release levels. Parasitism rates ranged from 20 to 99%. Euplectrus sp. was the most abundant parasitoid …[and] was more abundant in the dry season, whereas B. lateralis was more common in the wet season. Fruit production on monitored trees increased significantly” (Nafus, 1991). Positive foodweb effects also occurred that benefitted other mango-feeding Lepidoptera after decline of the pest species (Schreiner and Nafus, 1992, 1993).
Battu and Dhaliwal, 1977
Kumar and Yadav, 1987
Nafus, 1991
Schreiner and Nafus, 1992
Schreiner and Nafus, 1993
Venkatesha et al., 1993
Parasitoid

Bracon compressitarsis Wharton
Braconidae

1988 USA, Texas (from Mexico) (P. Krauter, pers. comm., Texas A and M University, Dept Entomology)Anthonomus grandis Boheman
Curculionidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Hosts recorded in the literature are species of Anthonomus weevils in Mexico (Wharton, 1983).
Genus
Curculionidae (various species in 1 genus, Anthonomus)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Texas, USA (P. Krauter, pers. comm., Texas A and M University, Dept Entomology).
Establishment:Did not establish in Texas (P. Krauter, pers. comm., Texas A and M University, Dept Entomology).
Impact:Not applicable
P. Krauter, pers. comm., Texas A and M University, Dept Entomology
Wharton, 1983
Parasitoid

Callibracon limbatus (Brullé)
Braconidae

1995 USA, California (from Australia) (Paine et al., 1995)Phoracantha semipunctata (F.)
Cerambycidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts are known from the literature. It is reputed to be limited to wood-boring larvae in species of eucalyptus trees (Hanks et al., 2001).
Unknown
Too little research exists on this species to predict the host range, which may be Cerambycidae or some lower level within the family.
E-/I-
Release:Released in California, USA (Paine et al., 1995).
Establishment:Did not establish in California (J. Millar, pers. comm.).
Impact:Not applicable
Hanks et al., 2001
J. Millar, pers. comm.
Paine et al., 1995
Parasitoid

Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem
Bethylidae

For species description, see Betrem (1961).
1988 Mexico (from Ivory Coast, West Africa) (Barrera et al., 1990a, 2008)Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari)
Curculionidae

Formerly in Stephanoderes
HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing was done before release to determine which species might be suitable alternative hosts for laboratory rearing. Two alternative laboratory-rearing species, Caulophilus oryzae (Gyllenhal) and Sitophilus sp., successfully supported parasitoid development (Pérez-Lachaud and Hardy, 2001).
Genus?
Curculionidae (1 species in 1 genus [Hypothenemus], plus 2 species in 2 genera used as laboratory-rearing hosts)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Mexico (Barrera et al., 1990a, 2008).
Establishment:Established in Mexico (Barrera et al., 1990b).
Impact:In Guatemala (near to release areas in Mexico), large releases of C. stephanoderis reduced berry infestation from 2.7–5.3% (1993) to 0.4–0.9% (1994), and 1.6–2.4% (1995), compared to control plot infestations of 2.8, 2.8, and 3.5%, a reduction of 75 and 48% from year to year (García and Barrios, 1996). However, field evaluations are based on augmentative releases and so do not measure effects of self-reproducing populations.
Barrera et al., 1990a
Barrera et al., 1990b
Barrera et al., 2008
Betrem, 1961
García and Barrios, 1996
Murphy and Moore, 1990
Pérez-Lachaud and Hardy, 2001
Parasitoid

Ceranisus menes (Walker)
Eulophidae

Noyes (2017) lists nine synonyms: (1) Asecodes aculeo (Walker), (2) Ceranisus brui (Vuillet), (3) Ceranisus rosilloi De Santis, (4) Ceranisus vinctus (Gahan), (5) Epomphale menes (Walker), (6) Euderomphale menes (Walker), (7) Pteroptrix menes Walker, (8) Thripoctenus brui Vuillet, and (9) Thripoctenus vinctus Gahan.
1992–1993 USA, Florida (two strains, from Thailand and Japan) (Loomans and van Lenteren, 1995, based on R. Baranowski, pers. comm., Prof. Emeritus, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville). These two strains were introduced into Florida to improve the biocontrol of the target pest, despite the fact that the species C. menes was already in Florida at the time (Frank and McCoy, 2007).Thrips palmi Karny
Thripidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. This is a cosmopolitan parasitoid known to attack thrips species in at least 12 genera (see pp. 103–104 of Loomans and van Lenteren, 1995). Noyes (2017) lists 18 species of Thripidae as hosts: (1) Ceratothripoides claratris (Shumsher), (2) Frankliniella intonsa Trybom, (3) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), (4) Frankliniella schultzei Trybom, (5) Isoneurothrips fullawayi Moulton, (6) Kakothrips pisivorus (Westwood), (7) Kakothrips robustus (Uzel), (8) Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom, (9) Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall), (10) Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), (11) Pseudodendrothrips mori (Niwa), (12) Scirtothrips citri (Moulton), (13) Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara, (14) Taeniothrips alliorum Priesner, (15) Taeniothrips longistylus Karny, (16) Thrips flavus Schrank, (17) Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and (18) Toxothrips ricinus L.
Family
Thripidae (at least 18 species in 12 genera). In addition, Noyes (2017) lists one species of cecidomyiid fly and one cynipid wasp, both of which seem unlikely hosts without confirmation.
E?/I?
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Loomans and van Lenteren, 1995, based on R. Baranowski, pers. comm., Prof. Emeritus, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville).
Establishment:Some recoveries were made in Florida at release sites, but establishment of released strains could not be determined due to prior existence of the species in Florida and lack of molecular markers to separate the new and old strains (Frank and McCoy, 2007).
Impact:No information available.
Frank and McCoy, 2007
Loomans and van Lenteren, 1995
Noyes, 2017
R. Baranowski, pers. comm., Prof. Emeritus, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville
Parasitoid

Ceratogramma etiennei Delvare
Trichogrammatidae

For species description, see Delvare (1998). Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Szelenyia etiennei (Delvare).
1998 USA, Florida (from Guadeloupe in the Caribbean) (Hall et al., 2001; see p. 159 of Frank and McCoy, 2007)Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)
Curculionidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing was done before release. No parasitism of 7 non-target species of lepidopteran eggs or those of 1 non-target species of weevil (Peña et al., 2010). Noyes (2017) lists no other species as hosts.
Possibly Genus or higher
Curculionidae (known only from the target pest). Diaprepes abbreviatus likely parasitizes eggs of various weevils concealed in plant tissues. Insufficient work has been done to know for sure that this species has genus-level specificity.
E-/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Hall et al., 2001; see p. 159 of Frank and McCoy, 2007).
Establishment:While some initial recoveries were made, long term establishment did not occur in Florida (Frank and McCoy, 2007; Peña et al., 2010; see also Amalin et al., 2004).
Impact:Not applicable
Amalin et al., 2004
Delvare, 1998
Frank and McCoy, 2007
Hall et al., 2001
Noyes, 2017
Peña et al., 2010
Parasitoid

Cirrospilus ingenuus Gahan
Eulophidae

For species description, see Gahan (1932). Noyes (2017) lists three synonyms: Cirrospilus quadristriata (Subba Rao and Ramamani), Cirrospilus quadristriatus (Subba Rao and Ramamani), and Scotolinx quadristriata Subba Rao and Ramamani.
1994 USA, Florida (from Thailand, and from Taiwan via Australia) (Smith and Hoy, 1995; LaSalle et al., 1999)Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton
Gracillariidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done relative to U.S. species before release; specificity was assumed based on testing in Australia against that fauna. For Australia, 0 non-target species were attacked from a test list including 1 Phyllocnistis leafminer, 4 gracillariid leafminers in other genera, and 14 other foliovores, leafminers, or gall makers in other families (Neale et al., 1995). The weevil Rhynchaenus mangiferae Marshal (Curculionidae) (Peter and Balasubramanian, 1984) is listed as a field host, but this record may be a misidentification and needs confirmation. In addition to the target pest, Noyes (2017) lists as hosts one unspecified agromyzid fly and one lyonetiid leafminer, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville).
Unknown in relation to North American fauna
E+/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Smith and Hoy, 1995; LaSalle et al., 1999).
Establishment:Established in Florida (LaSalle et al., 1999; Hoy, 2005).
Impact:Cirrospilus ingenuus had no apparent effect on the target’s density; another parasitoid released in the same project, Ageniaspis citricola, became the dominant introduced-parasitoid attacking citrus leafminer in Florida (Hoy, 2005).
Gahan, 1932
Hoy, 2005
LaSalle et al., 1999
Neale et al., 1995
Noyes, 2017
Peter and Balasubramanian, 1984
Smith and Hoy, 1995
Parasitoid

Citrostichus phyllocnistoides (Narayanin)
Eulophidae

Noyes (2017) lists four synonyms: Cirrospiloideus phyllocnistoides (Narayanan), Cirrospilus phyllocnistidis Narayanan, Cirrospilus phyllocnistoides Narayanan, and Tetrastichus phyllocnistoides (Narayanan).
2006 USA, Florida (from Southeast Asian via Spain) (P. Stansly, pers. comm.)Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton
Gracillariidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done relative to U.S. species before release; specificity assumed based on testing in Australia against that fauna. For Australia, 0 non-target species were attacked from a test list including 1 Phyllocnistis leafminer, 4 gracillariid leafminers in other genera, and 14 other foliovores, leafminers, or gall makers in other families (Neale et al., 1995). Field hosts of Citrostichus phyllocnistoides listed in the literature include (1) the psyllid Trioza obsoleta (Buckton) (Dash and Das, 1997), but this record may be a misidentification and needs confirmation; (2) a Stigmella sp. leafminer (Nepticulidae) (Massa et al., 2001), after the parasitoid’s introduction to Europe and the Middle East; and (3–4) Cosmopterix pulcherimella Chambers (Cosmopterigidae) and a Liriomyza leafminer (Agromyzidae) (Rizzo et al., 2006). Noyes (2017) also lists one additional species as a host, Acalyptris minimella (Scoble) (Nepticulidae).
Two Orders?
LEPIDOPTERA (1 leafminer in each of Gracillariidae, Nepticulidae, and Cosmopterigidae) and DIPTERA (1 leafminer in Agromyzidae); plus 1 record of a psyllid (Trioza obsoleta) in the Hemiptera in need of confirmation
E+/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (P. Stansly, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Established in Florida (P. Stansly, pers. comm.).
Impact:Citrostichus phyllocnistoides had little impact on citrus leafminer in Florida, as another biocontrol agent released in the same project, Ageniaspis citricola, became the dominant introduced-parasitoid attacking citrus leafminer in Florida (Hoy, 2005).
Dash and Das, 1997
Hoy, 2005
Massa et al., 2001
Neale et al., 1995
Noyes, 2017
P. Stansly, pers. comm.
Rizzo et al., 2006
Parasitoid

Coccobius fulvus (Compere and Annecke)
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists three synonyms: Coccobius mcdonaldi Shafee, Siddiqui and Rizvi; Physcus albipodus Agarwal; and Physcus fulvus Compere and Annecke. For a revision of the genus Coccobius, see Wang et al. (2014).
1997–1998 USA, Florida (from Thailand) (Howard and Weissling, 1999)Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi
Diaspididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. In addition to A. yasumasui (Howard and Weissling, 1999), C. fulvus is reported from additional diaspidid scales: (1) Unaspis yanonensis (Takagi, 1991; Matsumoto et al., 2004) and (2) Unaspis euonymi (Van Driesche et al., 1998a). A literature record also exists of Parthenolecanium corni Bouché (Coccidae) (Basheer et al., 2011). In addition, Noyes (2017) lists 4 more diaspidids as hosts: (1) Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead), (2) Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman), (3) Aulacaspis crawii (Cockerell), and (4) Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley).
Family?
Diaspididae (7 species in 6 genera, plus 1 record of a host in the Coccidae that needs confirmation since it is not found in Noyes [2017])
E+/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Howard and Weissling, 1999).
Establishment:Established in Florida (Howard and Weissling, 1999).
Impact:Coccobius fulvus did not suppress cycad scale (the target pest) in Florida.
Basheer et al., 2011
Howard and Weissling, 1999
Matsumoto et al., 2004
Noyes, 2017
Takagi, 1991
Van Driesche et al., 1998a
Wang et al., 2014
Parasitoid

Coccobius fulvus (Compere and Annecke)
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists three synonyms: Coccobius mcdonaldi Shafee, Siddiqui and Rizvi; Physcus albipodus Agarwal; and Physcus fulvus Compere and Annecke. For a revision of the genus Coccobius, see Wang et al. (2014).
2002 USA, Guam (from Thailand via Florida USA) (G. Reddy, pers. comm.)Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi
Diaspididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. In addition to A. yasumasui (Howard and Weissling, 1999), C. fulvus is reported from additional diaspidid scales: (1) Unaspis yanonensis (Takagi, 1991; Matsumoto et al., 2004) and (2) Unaspis euonymi (Van Driesche et al., 1998a). A literature record also exists of Parthenolecanium corni Bouché (Coccidae) (Basheer et al., 2011). In addition, Noyes (2017) lists 4 more diaspidids as hosts: (1) Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead), (2) Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman), (3) Aulacaspis crawii (Cockerell), and (4) Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley).
Family?
Diaspididae (7 species in 6 genera, plus 1 record of a host in the Coccidae that needs confirmation since it is not found in Noyes [2017])
E?/I-
Release:Released in Guam (G. Reddy, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Establishment in Guam not confirmed (T. Marler, pers. comm.).
Impact:No known effect on the scale on Guam.
Basheer et al., 2011
G. Reddy, pers. comm.
Howard and Weissling, 1999
Matsumoto et al., 2004
Noyes, 2017
T. Marler, pers. comm.
Takagi, 1991
Van Driesche et al., 1998a
Wang et al., 2014
Parasitoid

Coccobius nr fulvus
Aphelinidae

Also given as Physcus nr fulvus. Coccobius nr fulvus may be the same as Coccobius fulvus. This is consistent with a recent revision of Chinese Coccobius (Wang et al., 2014). However, direct genetic comparisons have not been made. For lack of confirmed species identity, Noyes (2017) could not be consulted for synonyms or literature hosts.
1990–1995 USA, Massachusetts (from China) (Van Driesche et al., 1998a)Unaspis euonymi (Comstock)
Diaspididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. For lack of confirmed species identity, Noyes (2017) could not be consulted for literature hosts.
Family?
Diaspididae (species composition unknown due to uncertainties with agent identification)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Massachusetts, USA (Van Driesche et al., 1998a).
Establishment:Established in Massachusetts (O’Reilly and Van Driesche, 2009).
Impact:An average of 21% parasitism was observed 12–16 years after release (O’Reilly and Van Driesche, 2009).
Noyes, 2017
O’Reilly and Van Driesche, 2009
Van Driesche et al., 1998a
Wang et al., 2014
Parasitoid

Cosmocomoidea ashmeadi (Girault)
Mymaridae

The change from Gonatocerus to Cosmocomoidea follows Huber (2015). Noyes (2017) lists three synonyms: Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault, Gonatocerus dolichocerus ashmeadi Girault, and Lymaenon ashmeadi (Girault).
2001 USA, California (from Louisiana USA and Mexico) (D. Morgan, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture; Boyd and Hoddle, 2007)Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)
Cicadellidae

Glassy-wing sharpshooter, GWSS. Formerly Homalodisca coagulata
HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. Retrospective host-range testing done in California found that Homalodisca liturata Ball was a physiologically acceptable host, but that Draeculacephala minerva Ball and Graphocephala atropunctata (Signoret) were not (Boyd and Hoddle, 2007). Field surveys found no parasitism of G. atropunctata or D. minerva eggs by C. ashmeadi in native habitats in southern California (Boyd and Hoddle, 2007). Noyes (2017) lists 5 additional hosts: (1) Cuerna costalis (Fabricius), (2) Homalodisca lacerta (Fowler), (3) Oncometopia clarior (Walker), (4) Oncometopia orbona Hopper, and (5) Oncometopia undata (Fabricius).
Family
Cicadellidae (7 species in 3 genera)
E+/I+
Release:Released in California, USA (Boyd and Hoddle, 2007; but see also Vickerman et al. [2014] and Triapitsyn [2006] for context as either a native species or an earlier natural invasion).
Establishment:Large numbers were released in California by the joint USDA-APHIS and CDFA program, mainly in the San Joaquin Valley. Cosmocomoidea ashmeadi is found widely in California (Vickerman et al., 2014), but since we cannot separate what was introduced from what was already there, we cannot say if the introduced population established.
Impact:Now the dominant parasitoid of this pest in interior areas of southern California (Lytle and Morse, 2012), causing up to 100% parasitism in samples (Vickerman et al., 2014). It is less abundant in the spring host generation for phenological reasons (Triapitsyn and Phillips, 2000; Vickerman et al., 2014).
Boyd and Hoddle, 2007
D. Morgan, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Huber, 2015
Lytle and Morse, 2012
Noyes, 2017
Triapitsyn and Phillips, 2000
Triapitsyn, 2006
Vickerman et al., 2014
Parasitoid

Cosmocomoidea fasciata (Girault)
Mymaridae

The change from Gonatocerus to Cosmocomoidea follows Huber (2015). Noyes (2017) lists two synonyms: Gonatocerus fasciatus Girault and Lymaenon fasciatus (Girault).
2006 USA, California (from southeastern USA) (D. Morgan, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture; S. Triapitsyn, pers. comm.). This species was present as a native species in northern California USA, but not present at the time of release in southern California, where it was released (S. Triapitsyn, pers. comm.).Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)
Cicadellidae

Glassy-wing sharpshooter, GWSS. Formerly Homalodisca coagulata
HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. However, retrospectively, host-range testing done in California found that Homalodisca liturata Ball and Draeculacephala minerva Ball were physiologically acceptable hosts, but that Graphocephala atropunctata (Signoret) was not (Boyd and Hoddle, 2007). Field surveys failed to reveal parasitism of G. atropunctata or D. minerva eggs by C. fasciata in native habitats in southern California (Boyd and Hoddle, 2007). Literature host records include Oncometopia orbona (Fabricius) (Triapitsyn et al., 2003). Noyes (2017) lists 2 additional species as hosts: (1) Homalodisca liturata Ball and (2) Paraulacizes irrorata (Fabricius).
Family
Cicadellidae (4 species in 3 genera)
E-/I-
Release:This species was present as a native species in northern California USA, but not present at the time of release in southern California, where it was released (S. Triapitsyn, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Establishment did not occur in southern California (S. Triapitsyn, pers. comm.; D. Morgan, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture).
Impact:Not applicable
Boyd and Hoddle, 2007
D. Morgan, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Huber, 2015
Noyes, 2017
S. Triapitsyn, pers. comm.
Triapitsyn et al., 2003
Parasitoid

Cosmocomoidea triguttata (Girault)
Mymaridae

The change from Gonatocerus to Cosmocomoidea follows Huber (2015). Noyes (2017) lists two synonyms: Gonatocerus triguttatus Girault and Gonatocerus triguttus Girault.
2000 USA, California (from southeastern USA and northeastern Mexico) (D. Morgan, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture; S. Triapitsyn, pers. comm.)Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)
Cicadellidae

Glassy-wing sharpshooter, GWSS. Formerly Homalodisca coagulata
HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. Triapitsyn and Phillips (2000) state that hosts are likely limited to the genera Homalodisca and Oncometopia. Literature hosts include H. vitripennis in Tamaulipas, Mexico (Triapitsyn and Phillips, 2000) and Oncometopia nigricans Walker in Florida (USA) (Triapitsyn et al., 2002). Noyes (2017) lists 5 additional species as hosts: (1) Homalodisca lacerta (Fowler), (2) Homalodisca liturata Ball, (3) Oncometopia clarior (Walker), (4) Pseudometopia amblardii (Signoret), (5) and Pseudometopia phalaesia (Distant).
Family
Cicadellidae (7 species in 3 genera)
E+/I?
Release:Released in California, USA (S. Triapitsyn, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Established in California (S. Triapitsyn, pers. comm.; D. Morgan, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture).
Impact:No information available.
D. Morgan, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Huber, 2015
Noyes, 2017
S. Triapitsyn, pers. comm.
Triapitsyn and Phillips, 2000
Triapitsyn et al., 2002
Parasitoid

Cotesia flavipes (Cameron)
Braconidae

This species was formerly known as Apanteles flavipes. It is a member of a four-species complex (Polaszek and Walker, 1991; Muirhead et al., 2012).
1985–1987 USA, northern Texas (from the Indo-Australian region) (Overholt and Smith, 1990). This species was first released, pre-1985, in the USA in southern Texas, in the Rio Grande Valley, where it established (Fuchs et al., 1979). In 1985–1987, a second release was made in northern Texas (Overholt and Smith, 1990).Diatraea grandiosella Dyar
Crambidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. From literature records, C. flavipes is known to attack many noctuid and crambid stemborers in grasses (Rutledge and Wiedenmann, 1999), including (1) Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Noctuidae) (Rothschild, 1970); (2–3) Diatraea saccharalis (F.) and Diatraea impersonatella (Walker) (Crambidae) (Galichet, 1971); (4) Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) (Crambidae) (Betbeder-Matibet, 1971); (5) Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Crambidae) (Varma and Bindra, 1974); (6) Chilo polychrysus (Meyrick) (Crambidae) (Ooi, 1974); (7) Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Crambidae) (Nath and Hikim, 1978); (8) Bissetia steniellus (Hampson) (Crambidae) (Varma et al., 1981); (9) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Crambidae) (Rajapakse and Kulasekare, 1982); (10) Diatraea dyari Box (Crambidae) (Willink, 1982); (11–12) Chilo orichalcociliellus (Strand) (Crambidae) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Noctuidae) (Overholt et al., 1994); (13) Chilo tumidicostalis Hampson (Crambidae) (Borah and Sarma, 1995); (14–15) Sesamia poephaga Tams & Bowden (Noctuidae), Coniesta ignefusalis (Hampson) (Crambidae) (Hailemichael et al., 1997); (16) Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae) (Cheng et al., 1999); and (17) Diatraea centrella (Möschler) (Crambidae) (Haynes et al., 2001).
Two Families
Noctuidae (3 species in 1 genus, Sesamia), Crambidae (14 species in 6 genera)
E-/I-
Release:This species was first released, pre-1985, in the USA in southern Texas, in the Rio Grande Valley, where it established (Fuchs et al., 1979). In 1985–1987, a second release was made in northern Texas (Overholt and Smith, 1990).
Establishment:In contrast to outcomes in southern Texas, releases in 1985–1987 in northern Texas did not lead to the establishment of C. flavipes (Overholt and Smith, 1990).
Impact:Not applicable
Betbeder-Matibet, 1971
Borah and Sarma, 1995
Cheng et al., 1999
Fuchs et al., 1979
Galichet, 1971
Hailemichael et al., 1997
Haynes et al., 2001
Muirhead et al., 2012
Nath and Hikim, 1978
Ooi, 1974
Overholt and Smith, 1990
Overholt et al., 1994
Rajapakse and Kulasekare, 1982
Polaszek and Walker, 1991
Rothschild, 1970
Rutledge and Wiedenmann, 1999
Varma and Bindra, 1974
Varma et al., 1981
Willink, 1982
Parasitoid

Cotesia flavipes (Cameron)
Braconidae

This species was formerly known as Apanteles flavipes. It is a member of a four-species complex (Polaszek and Walker, 1991; Muirhead et al., 2012).
1985 Mexico, Tamaulipas (from the Indo-Australian region) (Rodríguez-del-Bosque and Smith, Jr., 1997)Diatraea saccharalis (F.)
Crambidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. Known to attack many noctuid and crambid stemborers in grasses (Rutledge and Wiedenmann, 1999), including (1) Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Noctuidae) (Rothschild, 1970); (2–3) Diatraea saccharalis (F.) and Diatraea impersonatella (Walker) (Crambidae) (Galichet, 1971); (4) Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) (Crambidae) (Betbeder-Matibet, 1971); (5) Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Crambidae) (Varma and Bindra, 1974); (6) Chilo polychrysus (Meyrick) (Crambidae) (Ooi, 1974); (7) Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Crambidae) (Nath and Hikim, 1978); (8) Bissetia steniellus (Hampson) (Crambidae) (Varma et al., 1981); (9) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Crambidae) (Rajapakse and Kulasekare, 1982); (10) Diatraea dyari Box (Crambidae) (Willink, 1982); (11–12) Chilo orichalcociliellus (Strand) (Crambidae) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Noctuidae) (Overholt et al., 1994); (13) Chilo tumidicostalis Hampson (Borah and Sarma, 1995); (14–15) Sesamia poephaga Tams & Bowden (Noctuidae), Coniesta ignefusalis (Hampson) (Crambidae) (Hailemichael et al., 1997); (16) Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae) (Cheng et al., 1999); and (17) Diatraea centrella (Möschler) (Crambidae) (Haynes et al., 2001).
Two Families
Noctuidae (3 species in 1 genus, Sesamia), Crambidae (14 species in 6 genera)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Tamaulipas, Mexico (Rodríguez-del-Bosque and Smith, Jr., 1997).
Establishment:Established in Tamaulipas, Mexico (Rodríguez-del-Bosque and Smith, Jr., 1997).
Impact:No information available.
Betbeder-Matibet, 1971
Borah and Sarma, 1995
Cheng et al., 1999
Galichet, 1971
Hailemichael et al., 1997
Haynes et al., 2001
Muirhead et al., 2012
Nath and Hikim, 1978
Ooi, 1974
Overholt et al., 1994
Rajapakse and Kulasekare, 1982
Polaszek and Walker, 1991
Rodríguez-del-Bosque and Smith, Jr., 1997
Rothschild, 1970
Rutledge and Wiedenmann, 1999
Varma and Bindra, 1974
Varma et al., 1981
Willink, 1982
Parasitoid

Cotesia rubecula (Marshall)
Braconidae

This species was formerly known as Apanteles rubecula. The parasitoid imported from Beijing, China by Van Driesche was identified as C. rubecula, but may be a distinct species (given as C. nr. rubecula by You et al. [2012]), though this needs confirmation.
1988 USA, Massachusetts, (from China) (Van Driesche and Nunn, 2002). Three different populations have been released or spread naturally in North America, two of these before 1985.Pieris rapae L.
Pieridae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. In the laboratory, in Holland, local C. rubecula attacked local Pieris rapae, P. brassicae, and P. napi; this parasitoid population developed successfully in P. rapae and P. brassicae, but not in P. napi (Geervliet and Brodeur, 1992). In Massachusetts, USA, in the laboratory, both the local Pieris oleracea Harris (formerly P. napi) and Pieris virginiensis Edwards were suitable physiological hosts for C. rubecula (Van Driesche et al., 2003) but were not attacked in the field (P. virginiensis [Benson et al., 2003a]; P. napi [Benson et al., 2003b; Van Driesche et al., 2003]). In New Zealand, in laboratory host range tests with 9 species, 2 non-target species received ovipositions (Plutella xylostella [L.] [Plutellidae] and Graphania mutans [Walker] [Noctuidae]), but neither of these 2 hosts supported larval development (Cameron and Walker, 1997).
Genus in laboratory; Species in field
Pieridae (1 field host in 1 genus, Pieris)
E+/I+
Release:(1) A Cotesia rubecula population of unknown origin naturally invaded British Columbia, Canada (Wilkinson, 1966) and later spread naturally into the northwestern USA in the 1970s (Biever, 1992) as well as being released in the eastern United States in the 1960s (Puttler et al., 1970). (2) A second C. rubecula population was collected from Yugoslavia and released in the eastern United States in the 1960s (Puttler et al., 1970). (3) A third C. rubecula population was introduced from China into Massachusetts, USA in 1988 (Van Driesche and Nunn, 2002).
Establishment:Releases of population (#1), made in the 1960s in the eastern United States, of C. rubecula collected from British Columbia (Puttler et al., 1970), or later of population (#2) from Yugoslavia, did not result in establishment (McDonald and Kok, 1992), except perhaps in eastern Canada (Corrigan, 1982; Godin and Boivan, 1998). In 1988, C. rubecula imported from China (#3) established readily in Massachusetts and spread throughout the northeastern and north central USA (Van Driesche and Nunn, 2002).
Impact:Damage was significantly reduced per larva by C. rubecula because hosts were killed as fourth instars, before the majority of larval feeding (Rahman, 1970). In the northwestern United States, the Vancouver, BC population of the parasitoid (#1) became the dominant parasitoid of P. rapae in Washington state (Biever et al., 1992). The Chinese population of C. rubecula (#3) proved highly effective and caused 75% parasitism in spring cole crops on organic vegetable farms in Massachusetts and displaced its competitor, the introduced Cotesia glomerata (L.) (Van Driesche, 2008). Cohorts of P. rapae established on collards in Massachusetts for lifetable studies suffered 62% parasitism by C. rubecula, the largest source of larval mortality (Herlihy and Van Driesche, 2013).
Benson et al., 2003a
Benson et al., 2003b
Biever et al., 1992
Biever, 1992
Cameron and Walker, 1997
Corrigan, 1982
Geervliet and Brodeur, 1992
Godin and Boivan, 1998
Herlihy and Van Driesche, 2013
Herlihy et al., 2012
McDonald and Kok, 1992
Puttler et al., 1970
Rahman, 1970
Van Driesche and Nunn, 2002
Van Driesche et al., 2003
Van Driesche, 2008
Wilkinson, 1966
You et al., 2012
Parasitoid

Cotesia vestalis (Kurdjumov)
Braconidae

This species was formerly known as Cotesia plutellae, and an earlier generic placement was in Apanteles.
1990–1992 USA, Florida (from Malaysia) (see p. 20 of Frank and McCoy, 1993; Mitchell et al., 1999). This species was also released in Hawaii USA in 1983–84, where it established (Lai and Funasaki, 1986; Funasaki et al., 1988).Plutella xylostella (L.)
Plutellidae

Diamondback moth
HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release in Florida. Laboratory host range studies were done in New Zealand by Cameron and Walker (1997) who found successful reproduction (to the cocoon stage) in 8 of 13 species presented, in 5 families: Plutellidae, Pyralidae, Nymphalidae, Arctiidae, and Noctuidae. In laboratory tests, parasitism of the weed biological control agent Nyctemera amica (Arctiidae) ended the consideration of C. vestalis for introduction to Australia (Endersby and Cameron, 2004), and for the same reason it was decided not to introduce it to the Cook Islands (Walker et al., 2004). Laboratory-rearing hosts recorded in the literature include Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Pyralidae) (Wang et al., 1972) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Noctuidae) (Yadav et al., 2010). Field host records include (1) Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Noctuidae) (Joshi and Sharma, 1974); (2) Spodoptera litura (F.) (Noctuidae) (Chiu and Chou, 1976); (3) Ocnogyna baetica (Rambur) (Arctiidae) (Lipa et al., 1993); (4–5) Autographa gamma (L.) (Noctuidae) and Autographa nigrisigna (Walker) (Noctuidae) (Kaneko, 1993); (6) Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Noctuidae) (Guimarães et al., 1995); (7) Proclossiana eunomia (Esper) (Nymphalidae) (Waeyenbergh and Baguette, 1996); (8) Nyctemera amica (White) (Arctiidae) (Endersby and Cameron, 2004); and (9) Simyra dentinosa Freyer (Noctuidae) (Karimpour et al., 2005).
Five Families
Plutellidae (1 species, the target pest), Noctuidae (7 species in 5 genera), Pyralidae (1 species), Arctiidae (2 species in 2 genera), Nymphalidae (1 species)
E?/I?
Release:Released in Florida, USA (see p. 20 of Frank and McCoy, 1993; Mitchell et al., 1999).
Establishment:Establishment in Florida was not determined (see p. 20 of Frank and McCoy, 1993), but may have occurred (see Mitchell et al., 1999).
Impact:Augmentative releases achieved 37% parasitism in field trials (Mitchell et al., 1999), but the impact of self-sustaining populations was not determined.
Cameron and Walker, 1997
Chiu and Chou, 1976
Endersby and Cameron, 2004
Frank and McCoy, 1993
Funasaki et al., 1988
Guimarães et al., 1995
Joshi and Sharma, 1974
Kaneko, 1993
Karimpour et al., 2005
Lai and Funasaki, 1986
Lipa et al., 1993
Mitchell et al., 1999
Waeyenbergh and Baguette, 1996
Walker et al., 2004
Wang et al., 1972
Yadav et al., 2010
Parasitoid

Dacnusa sibirica Telenga
Braconidae

No synonyms reported in the literature.
1995 Mexico (from Koppert and other commercial insectaries) (Cortez Mondaca and Valenzuela Escoboza, 2015)Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)
Agromyzidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature records note the following agromyzid leafminers as hosts: (1) Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach) (Zucchi and van Lenteren, 1978); (2) Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (van de Veire, 1988); (3) Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau) (Garrido et al., 1992); (4) as a laboratory-rearing host: Phytomyza caulinaris Hering (van der Linden, 1992); (5) Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Leuprecht, 1993); and (6) as a laboratory-rearing host: Chromatomyia syngenesiae Hardy (Croft and Copland, 1994).
Family
Agromyzidae (6 species in 3 genera)
E?/I-
Release:Released in Mexico (Cortez Mondaca and Valenzuela Escoboza, 2015).
Establishment:The release in Mexico was for use in greenhouses and its establishment was not intended nor looked for.
Impact:No pest was being targeted for permanent, areawide suppression; no report of establishment outside of greenhouses.
Cortez Mondaca and Valenzuela Escoboza, 2015
Croft and Copland, 1994
Garrido et al., 1992
Leuprecht, 1993
van de Veire, 1988
van der Linden, 1992
Zucchi and van Lenteren, 1978
Parasitoid

Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway)
Braconidae

2003 USA, Hawaii (from Australia) (Bokonon-Ganta et al., 2013)Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel)
Tephritidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing was done before release. Under laboratory conditions, of 4 non-target tephritids (Procecidochares utilis Stone, Eutreta xanthochaeta Aldrich, Ensina sonchi [L.], and Trupanea dubautiae [Bryan]) exposed to D. kraussii in each species’ plant substrate (stem galls of Ageratina adenophora [Spreng.] King & H. Rob. and Lantana camara L. and flowerheads of Sonchus oleraceus L. and Dubautia raillardioides Hillebrand, respectively), only E. xanthochaeta supported successful parasitism (Duan and Messing, 2000). Of 3 pest fruit flies offered as hosts, D. kraussii successfully parasitized Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), but not Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) or Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Messing and Ramadan, 2000). Among Australian tephritids offered under laboratory conditions, D. kraussii successfully developed in Bactrocera jarvisi (Tryon) and B. tryoni (Froggatt), but not B. cacuminata (Hering) or B. cucumis (French) (Ero et al., 2010). Field hosts recorded in the literature include only Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Argov et al., 2009).
Family
Tephritidae (6 species in 3 genera)
E?/I-
Release:Released in Hawaii (Bokonon-Ganta et al., 2013).
Establishment:Established in Hawaii (Bokonon-Ganta et al., 2013).
Impact:In Hawaii, D. kraussi had little impact on the target pest, B. latifrons, with rates of field parasitism of about 1.0% (Bokonon-Ganta et al., 2013).
Argov et al., 2009
Bokonon-Ganta et al., 2013
Duan and Messing, 2000
Ero et al., 2010
Messing and Ramadan, 2000
Parasitoid

Diadegma armillata (Gravenhorst)
Ichneumonidae

Formerly given as Campoplex armillatus, Angitia armillata, Nythobia armillata, and Diadegma armillatum. Other synonyms include Diadegma pseudocombinatum (Szepligeti) and Diadegma tibiale (Gravenhorst) (Yu, 2017). See Wagener et al. (2006) for notes on phylogeny of the genus Diadegma.
1989–1991 USA, Washington state (from France and Korea) (Unruh et al., 2003)Yponomeuta malinellus (Zeller)
Yponomeutidae

Given formerly as Hyponomeuta malinellus
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Post-release host range studies showed 3 species of Yponomeuta to be suitable hosts (Y. evonymellus, Y. rorellus, Y. padellus), while 4 others were not (Y. vigintipunctatus [Retzius], Y. cagnagellus [Hübner], Y. mahalebellus Guenée, and Y. plumbellus [Denis & Schiffermüller]) due to encapsulation (Dijkerman, 1990; Hérard and Prévost, 1997). Literature field host records include 8 species in 4 families: Yponomeutidae: (1) Y. rorellus (Hübner) (Koehler and Kolk, 1971); (2) Yponomeuta evonymella L. (Bartninkaite, 1996); (3) Yponomeuta padella (L.) (formerly Hyponomeuta padellus) (Servadei, 1930); Tortricidae: (4) Grapholita molesta (Busck) (formerly Cydia molesta) (Grandi, 1937); (5) Choristoneura murinana (Hübner) (formerly in Tortrix) (Franz, 1941); Coleophoridae: (6) Coleophora laricella (Hübner) (Jahn, 1948); Plutellidae: (7) Plutella xylostella (L.) (Khristova, 1957); (8) Prays oleae (Bernard) (Agrò et al., 2009).
Four Families
Yponomeutidae (4 species in 1 genus, Yponomeuta), Tortricidae (2 species in 2 genera), Coleophoridae (1 species), Plutellidae (2 species in 2 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Washington state, USA (Unruh et al., 2003).
Establishment:Did not establish in Washington state (Unruh et al., 2003).
Impact:Not applicable
Agrò et al., 2009
Bartninkaite, 1996
Dijkerman, 1990
Franz, 1941
Grandi, 1937
Hérard and Prévost, 1997
Jahn, 1948
Khristova, 1957
Koehler and Kolk, 1971
Servadei, 1930
Unruh et al., 2003
Wagener et al., 2006
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Diadegma semiclausum Hellén
Ichneumonidae

Formerly given as Angitia semiclausa Hellen. Other synonyms include Diadegma eucerophagum Horstmann and Diadegma xylostellae Kusigemati (Yu, 2017). See Wagener et al. (2006) for notes on phylogeny of the genus Diadegma.
1985 USA, Hawaii (from Pakistan) (Funasaki et al., 1988)Plutella xylostella (L.)
Plutellidae

Diamondback moth
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing was done before release. No other hosts are reported in the literature, and the species shows a strong response to cabbage odor, particularly to cabbage infested by P. xylostella (Rossbach et al., 2005).
Possibly Species
Xylostellidae (known only from the target pest)
E?/I?
Release:Released in Hawaii (Funasaki et al., 1988).
Establishment:Establishment in Hawaii was never assessed. Given the establishment of this species in many other locations, it is likely to have established in Hawaii.
Impact:Impact has not been evaluated. However, given successful control of this pest in many other locations, D. semiclausum may have reduced diamondback moth densities in Hawaii, but that needs confirmation.
Funasaki et al., 1988
Rossbach et al., 2005
Wagener et al., 2006
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Diadromus pulchellus Wesmael
Ichneumonidae

No synonyms have been reported (Yu, 2017).
2010 Canada, Ontario (from Switzerland and surrounding countries) (Mason et al., 2013)Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller)
Acrolepiidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release (Jenner, 2008). Host range studies done before release (Jenner, 2008) but published after release (Jenner et al., 2014) found that 3 of 12 non-target species tested were suitable hosts: (1) Plutella xylostella L. (Plutellidae) (also known as a field host), (2) Acrolepiopsis incertella (Chambers) (Acrolepiidae), and (3) Plutella porrectella (L.) (Plutellidae). Literature records of field hosts include only Plutella xylostella (Thibout, 1988). Host acceptance for oviposition is stimulated by compounds in the host cocoon (Bénédet et al., 1999; Gauthier et al., 2004).
Two Families
Acrolepiidae (2 species in 1 genus, Acrolepiopsis), Plutellidae (2 species in 1 genus, Plutella)
E+/I-
Release:Released in Ontario, Canada (Mason et al., 2013).
Establishment:Recovered in Ontario at release sites in year following release (Mason et al., 2013).
Impact:Little impact observed in Canada after release, perhaps due to hyperparasitism by Conura albifrons (Walsh) (Chalcididae) (Miall et al., 2014). Native range impact studies done in Europe before release in Canada suggest potential high efficacy (Jenner et al., 2010).
Bénédet et al., 1999
Gauthier et al., 2004
Jenner et al., 2010
Jenner et al., 2014
Jenner, 2008
Mason et al., 2013
Miall et al., 2014
Thibout, 1988
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh)
Braconidae

Given earlier as Diaeretus rapae Curtis and Aphidius brassicae Marshall.
1986 USA, California (from Switzerland) (Daane et al., 1995a). This species is apparently native to the USA. Before this introduction, a species with this name was reported from Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) (Davis and Satterthwait, 1916; Pimentel, 1961), including in California (Oatman and Platner, 1971).Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko)
Aphididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing was done before release. Literature host records for D. rapae exist for many aphids (Aphididae), including (1) Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) (Paddook, 1916); (2) Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Wheeler, 1923); (3) Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Newton, 1934); (4–5) Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) and Aphis craccivora C. L. Koch (Atwal et al., 1969); (6) Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Walker et al., 1973); (7) Hayhurstia atriplicis (L.) (Nemec and Starý, 1984); (8) Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Reed et al., 1991); (9–14) Acyrthosiphon lactucae (Passerini), Phorodon humuli (Schrank), Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini, Brachycaudus tragopogonis (Kaltenbach), Uroleucon ivae Robinson, and Braggia sp. (Pike et al., 1999); and (15) Brachycaudus helichrysi Kaltenbach (Nebreda et al., 2005).
Family
Aphididae (15 species in 13 genera)
E?/I-
Release:Released in California, USA (Contra Costa County) as a single release of 115 individuals (Daane et al., 1995a).
Establishment:Diaeretiella rapae was subsequently recovered from asparagus aphid (B. asparagi) in California from counties near the release sites (but not in Contra Costa Co.) (Daane et al., 1995a). Because the released population could not be separated from the form already present, it could not be determined if the introduced form established.
Impact:No separable impact due to the released population of the parasitoid could be measured. In Washington state, a parasitoid of the same name commonly attacked asparagus aphid (B. asparagi) but did not regulate it to economically acceptable levels (Wright and Cone, 1988).
Atwal et al., 1969
Daane et al., 1995a
Davis and Satterthwait, 1916
Nebreda et al., 2005
Nemec and Starý, 1984
Newton, 1934
Oatman and Platner, 1971
Paddook, 1916
Pike et al., 1999
Pimentel, 1961
Reed et al., 1991
Walker et al., 1973
Wheeler, 1923
Wright and Cone, 1988
Parasitoid

Diaparsis jucunda (Holmgren)
Ichneumonidae

2003 USA, Rhode Island (from Switzerland, France, and other parts of Europe) (Tewksbury, 2014, Tewksbury et al., 2017)Lilioceris lilii (Scopoli)
Chrysomelidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing was done before release (Gold, 2003; Kenis et al., 2003; Casagrande and Kenis, 2004; USDA APHIS, 2017). Of 2 non-target European species of Lilioceris tested, both were attacked. Of 8 species of North American non-Lilioceris species (6 in the same family; 2 in other families), none were attacked (Casagrande and Kenis, 2004).
Genus
Chrysomelidae (3 species in 1 genus, Lilioceris). Functionally monophagous in North America, where there are no native Lilioceris species.
E+/I?
Release:Released in Rhode Island and other New England states in the USA (Tewksbury, 2014, Tewksbury et al., 2017).
Establishment:Established in various New England states and spreading (Tewksbury, 2014, Tewksbury et al., 2017).
Impact:Not yet determined.
Casagrande and Kenis, 2004
Daane et al., 1995a
Gold, 2003
Kenis et al., 2003
Tewksbury et al., 2017
Tewksbury, 2014
USDA APHIS, 2017
Parasitoid

Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam & Agarwal)
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists seven synonyms and some further minor variants: (1) Aphidencyrtus aligarhensis Shafee, Alam and Agarwal; (2) Aphidencyrtus diaphorinae Myartseva and Trjapitzin; (3) Aphidencyrtus sacchari Kaul and Agarwal; (4) Diaphorencyrtus aligarensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal); (5) Diaphorencyrtus diaphorinae (Lin and Tao); (6) Psyllaephagus diaphorinae Lin and Tao; and (7) Syrphophagus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal).
2000–2014 USA: (1) Florida: 2000–2002 (from Taiwan) (Hoy, 2005); 2007–2009 (from China) (Rohrig et al., 2012); (2) California: 2014 (from Pakistan) (USDA APHIS, 2014; Milosavljevi? et al., 2017) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama
Liviidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing was done before release (Bistline-East et al., 2015). Seven non-target psyllids in 4 families were used in host range tests: (1) Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Triozidae), (2) Heteropsylla sp. (Psyllidae: Ciriacreminae), (3) Arytainilla spartiophylla (Forester) (Psyllidae: Psyllinae), (4) Euphyllura olivina (Costa) (Liviidae: Euphyllurinae), (5) Heteropsylla texana Crawford (Psyllidae: Ciriacreminae), (6) Diclidophlebia fremontiae (Klyver) (Liviidae: Liviinae), and (7) Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore (Aphalaridae). Parasitism occurred on only one species, the adventive pest the potato psyllid (B. cockerelli), which showed 14% parasitism (Bistline-East et al., 2015). No species other than the pest D. citri are listed in the literature as hosts of D. aligarhensis. However, Noyes (2017) lists 2 additional species as hosts: Diaphorina cardiae Crawford and Psylla sp.
Three Families in the Superfamily Psylloidea or Genus?
Liviidae (2 species in 1 genus, Diaphorina), Triozidae (1 species in Bactericera under laboratory conditions), Psyllidae (1 unnamed species of Psylla)
E+/I+
Release:(1) Florida, USA: Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis from Taiwan were released in Florida in 2000–2002 (Hoy, 2005) and ones from China in 2007–2009 (Rohrig et al., 2012). (2) California, USA: Released in California from Pakistan in 2014 (USDA APHIS, 2014; Milosavljevi? et al., 2017).
Establishment:(1) Florida: Not established in Florida (Rohrig et al., 2012). (2) California: Recoveries have been made at 13 of 15 release sites (Milosavljevi? et al., 2017).
Impact:(1) Florida: Not applicable. (2) California: Rates of parasitism at release sites in California range from 0.2–37.5% (Milosavljevi? et al., 2017).
Bistline-East et al., 2015
Hoy, 2005
Milosavljević et al., 2017
Noyes, 2017
Rohrig et al., 2012
USDA APHIS, 2014
Parasitoid

Diglyphus isaea (Walker)
Braconidae

This species may be a complex of many cryptic species, four having been suggested from China alone (Sha et al., 2007). Synonyms include Solenotus isaea.
1995 Mexico (from Koppert or other commercial insectaries) (Cortez Mondaca and Valenzuela Escoboza, 2015)Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)
Agromyzidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature hosts include various agromyzid (unless other family is given) leafminers: (1) Pseudonapomyza dianthicola Venturi (Ciampolini, 1949); (2) Phytomyza syngenesiae (= Chromatomyia syngenesiae) (Hardy) (Burges, 1974); (3) Napomyza cichorii Spencer (Sant et al., 1975); (4) Phytomyza horticola Gourea (Takada and Kamijo, 1979); (5–6) Agromyza frontella (Rondani) and Liriomyza trifoliearum Spener (Hendrickson and Barth, 1979); (7) Stigmella malella (Stainton) (Nepticulidae) (Navone and Vidano, 1983); (8) Liriomyza strigata (Meigen) (Villevieille, 1987); (9) Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani) (Weigand, 1990); (10) Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Leuprecht, 1992); (11) Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach) (Boot et al., 1992); (12) Phytomyza caulinaris Hering (van der Linden, 1992); (13) Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Beitia et al., 1994); (14) Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Gracillariidae) (González Tirado et al., 1996); (15) Agromyza hiemalis Becker (Massa and Rizzo, 2000); (16) Paraphytomyza populi (Kaltenbach) (Georgiev and Boyadzhiev, 2002); (17) Agromyza nigrella (Rondani) (El-Serwy, 2003); (18) Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Niranjana et al., 2005); (19–20) Liriomyza brassicae (Riley) and Liriomyza chenopodii (Watt) (Bjorksten et al., 2005); and (21) Liriomyza chinensis Kato (Tokumaru, 2006).
Three Families (leafminers in two orders)
DIPTERA: Agromyzidae (17 species in 7 genera, of which 8 species are in Liriomza); LEPIDOPTERA: Nepticulidae (1 species) and Gracillariidae (1 species)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Mexico (Cortez Mondaca and Valenzuela Escoboza, 2015).
Establishment:The release in Mexico was for use in greenhouses, and its establishment was not intended or looked for.
Impact:No pest was being targeted for permanent, areawide suppression; no report was found of establishment outside of greenhouses.
Beitia et al., 1994
Bjorksten et al., 2005
Boot et al., 1992
Burges, 1974
Ciampolini, 1949
Cortez Mondaca and Valenzuela Escoboza, 2015
El-Serwy, 2003
Georgiev and Boyadzhiev, 2002
González Tirado et al., 1996
Hendrickson and Barth, 1979
Leuprecht, 1992
Massa and Rizzo, 2000
Navone and Vidano, 1983
Niranjana et al., 2005
Noyes, 2017
Sant et al., 1975
Sha et al., 2007
Takada and Kamijo, 1979
Tokumaru, 2006
van der Linden, 1992
Villevieille, 1987
Weigand, 1990
Parasitoid

Digonogastra kimballi Kirkland
Braconidae

Formerly known as Iphiaulax kimballi.
1985–1987 USA, northern Texas (from Mexico) (Overholt and Smith, 1990)Diatraea grandiosella Dyar
Crambidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature hosts include Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and 6 species of Diatraea (all are Crambidae) (Wharton et al., 1989; Rodríguez-del-Bosque and Smith, 1990).
Family
Crambidae (7 species in 2 genera; 6 in Diatraea).
E?/I-
Release:Released in northern Texas, USA (Overholt and Smith, 1990).
Establishment:Establishment was not demonstrated conclusively, but some ability to overwinter was observed (Overholt and Smith, 1990).
Impact:Not applicable
Overholt and Smith, 1990
Rodríguez-del-Bosque and Smith, 1990
Wharton et al., 1989
Parasitoid

Doryctobracon trinidadensis (Gahan)
Braconidae

Formerly in Opius.
1985 USA, Florida (from Trinidad) (Baranowski et al., 1993)Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)
Tephritidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata Schiner (Gahan, 1919).
Genus
Tephritidae (3 species in 1 genus, Anastrepha)
E?/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (see Table 1 of Baranowski et al., 1993).
Establishment:Some initial recoveries were made but establishment could not be confirmed (Baranowski et al., 1993).
Impact:Not applicable
Baranowski et al., 1993
Gahan, 1919
Parasitoid

Encarsia aurantii (Howard)
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists three synonyms: (1) Coccophagus aurantii Howard, (2) Prospalta aurantii (Howard), and (3) Prospaltella aurantii (Howard).
1988 USA, California (from Texas USA) (Ehler, 1995, 2005). This Asian species, self-introduced to the United States, was collected from Texas, part of the scale’s native range, and then later released in 1988 in California, a different ecoregion. Melanaspis obscura (Comstock)
Diaspididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing was done before release. Literature host records include 11 species of diaspidids in 8 genera: (1) Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock (Diaspididae) (Nakayama, 1921); (2) Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) (Anon., 1929); (3) Lepidosaphes gloveri (Packard) (Wasser, 1938); (4) Aspidiotus rigidus Reyne (Reyne, 1948); (5–6) Lepidosaphes newsteadi (Sulc) and Leucaspis loewi Cockerell (Mesnil, 1949); (7) Aonidomytilus espinosai (Porter) (Matta and Hichins, 1979); (8) Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (Terán et al., 1985); (9) Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead) (Khalaf and Sokhansanj, 1993); (10) Parlatoria oleae (Colvée) (Abd-Rabou, 2001); and (11) Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan) (Chkhaidze and Yasnosh, 2001). Noyes (2017) lists an extensive set of hosts, including 1 in Aleyrodidae, 3 in Coccidae, 52 in Diaspididae, and 1 in Kermesidae.
Family?
Diaspididae (64 species in 28 genera; plus 5 other records in need of confirmation, including 3 species in 1 genus in the Coccidae, and 1 species in each of the Kermesidae and Aleyrodidae)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Sacramento, California, USA (Ehler, 1995, 2005).
Establishment:Established at release site (Ehler, 1995, 2005).
Impact:By 2002 (4 years after release), the scale was under complete biological control and chemical pesticides were no longer needed to protect the trees (Ehler, 1995, 2005).
Abd-Rabou, 2001
Anon., 1929
Chkhaidze and Yasnosh, 2001
Ehler, 1995
Ehler, 2005
Khalaf and Sokhansanj, 1993
Matta and Hichins, 1979
Mesnil, 1949
Nakayama, 1921
Noyes, 2017
Reyne, 1948
Terán et al., 1985
Wasser, 1938
Parasitoid

Encarsia bimaculata Heraty and Polaszek
Aphelinidae

For species description see (Heraty and Polaszek, 2000). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1994–1997 USA: (1) Texas, Arizona, California: (from India) (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003; Gould et al., 2008; W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture); (2) Florida: (from Guatemala, India, and Sudan) (Nguyen and Bennett, 1995)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other literature hosts are listed. Noyes (2017) lists one additional host: Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood.
Family
Aleyrodidae (2 species in 2 genera)
E+/I?
Release:(1) western USA: Released in the western USA (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003); (2) Florida, USA: Released in Florida (Lahey 2014; Lahey et al., 2016).
Establishment:(1) western USA: Not established in the western USA (Gould et al., 2008). (2) Florida: Successfully established in Florida (Lahey, 2014; Lahey et al., 2016).
Impact:(1) western USA: Not applicable. (2) Florida: Impact not determined.
Gould et al., 2008
Heraty and Polaszek, 2000
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Lahey 2014
Lahey et al., 2016
Nguyen and Bennett, 1995
Noyes, 2017
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Parasitoid

Encarsia diaspidicola (Silvestri)
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Prospaltella diaspidicola Silvestri.
2013 USA, Hawaii (from the USA, France, and Tonga—mixed colony via Samoa [Sands et al., 1990]) (Follett et al., 2015)Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti)
Diaspididae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing was done before release (Neumann et al., 2010). Of 7 non-target insects tested by Neumann et al. (2010), none were parasitized or killed. These non-target species examined included three diaspidids (Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli [Cooley], Aspidiotus destructor Signoret, Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi), and the Hawaiian endemic palm scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Stickney) (Halimococcidae) (Neumann et al., 2010). Literature hosts for Encarsia diaspidicola are 2 diaspidid scales: (1) Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Sands et al., 1990) and (2) Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) (Matadha et al., 2005). In addition, Noyes (2017) lists 3 other diaspidid hosts: (1) Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot), (2) Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan), and (3) Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman).
Family
Diaspididae (5 species in 5 genera)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Hawaii (Follett et al., 2015).
Establishment:Established in Hawaii (Follett et al., 2015).
Impact:Established populations of E. diaspidicola are causing 5–12% parasitism of the target pest, P. pentagona (Follett et al., 2015).
Follett et al., 2015
Matadha et al., 2005
Neumann et al., 2010
Noyes, 2017
Sands et al., 1990
Van Driesche et al., 1998a
Parasitoid

Encarsia formosa Gahan
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Trichaporus formosus (Gahan).
1992–1995 USA, California and Arizona (from Greece, Egypt, and Thailand) (Goolsby et al., 1998; Kirk et al., 2000; W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release (species already present in USA). Literature host records include the following whiteflies: (1) Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Speyer, 1927); (2) Dialeurodes chittendeni Laing (Wilson, 1935); (3) Aleyrodes spiraeoides Quaintance and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Gerling, 1966); and (4) Trialeurodes ricini (Misra) (Shishehbor and Brennan, 1995). Noyes (2017) lists 12 additional species as hosts: (1) Aleuroglandulus subtilis Bondar, (2) Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell, (3) Aleurotrachelus trachoides Back, (4) Aleyrodes lonicerae Walker, (5) Aleyrodes proletella L., (6) Aleyrodes singularis Danzig, (7) Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), (8) Lipaleyrodes atriplex (Froggatt), (9) Lipaleyrodes euphorbiae David & Subramaniam, (10) Tetraleurodes mori Quaintance, (11) Trialeurodes abutiloneus Haldeman, and (12) Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance).
Family
Aleyrodidae (16 species in 9 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in southwestern United States (Gould et al., 2008, Kirk et al., 2000; W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture).
Establishment:Encarisia formosa strains from Greece, Egypt, and Thailand did not establish (Goolsby et al., 1998; Kirk et al., 2000).
Impact:Not applicable
Arredondo-Bernal, 1999
G. Reddy, pers. comm.
Gerling, 1966
Goolsby et al., 1998
Kirk et al., 2000
Noyes, 2017
Shishehbor and Brennan, 1995
Speyer, 1927
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Wilson, 1935
Parasitoid

Encarsia formosa Gahan
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Trichaporus formosus (Gahan).
2011 USA, Guam (G. Reddy, pers. comm.) (from a commercial insectary)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release (species already present in USA). Literature host records include the following whiteflies: (1) Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Speyer, 1927); (2) Dialeurodes chittendeni Laing (Wilson, 1935); (3) Aleyrodes spiraeoides Quaintance and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Gerling, 1966); and (4) Trialeurodes ricini (Misra) (Shishehbor and Brennan, 1995). Noyes (2017) lists 12 additional species as hosts: (1) Aleuroglandulus subtilis Bondar, (2) Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell, (3) Aleurotrachelus trachoides Back, (4) Aleyrodes lonicerae Walker, (5) Aleyrodes proletella L., (6) Aleyrodes singularis Danzig, (7) Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), (8) Lipaleyrodes atriplex (Froggatt), (9) Lipaleyrodes euphorbiae David & Subramaniam, (10) Tetraleurodes mori Quaintance, (11) Trialeurodes abutiloneus Haldeman, and (12) Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance).
Family
Aleyrodidae (16 species in 9 genera)
E?/I?
Release:Released in Guam (G. Reddy, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Believed to have established, but further survey work is needed to confirm this.
Impact:No information available.
Arredondo-Bernal, 1999
G. Reddy, pers. comm.
Gerling, 1966
Noyes, 2017
Shishehbor and Brennan, 1995
Speyer, 1927
Wilson, 1935
Parasitoid

Encarsia formosa Gahan
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Trichaporus formosus (Gahan).
1992–1993 Mexico, Baja California (from Egypt and Texas USA) (Arredondo-Bernal, 1999; Martínez Carillo et al., 2015)Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood
Aleyrodidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release (species already present in USA). Literature host records include the following whiteflies: (1) Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Speyer, 1927); (2) Dialeurodes chittendeni Laing (Wilson, 1935); (3) Aleyrodes spiraeoides Quaintance and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Gerling, 1966); and (4) Trialeurodes ricini (Misra) (Shishehbor and Brennan, 1995). Noyes (2017) lists 12 additional species as hosts: (1) Aleuroglandulus subtilis Bondar, (2) Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell, (3) Aleurotrachelus trachoides Back, (4) Aleyrodes lonicerae Walker, (5) Aleyrodes proletella L., (6) Aleyrodes singularis Danzig, (7) Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), (8) Lipaleyrodes atriplex (Froggatt), (9) Lipaleyrodes euphorbiae David & Subramaniam, (10) Tetraleurodes mori Quaintance, (11) Trialeurodes abutiloneus Haldeman, and (12) Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance).
Family
Aleyrodidae (16 species in 9 genera)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Baja California, Mexico (Arredondo-Bernal, 1999; Martínez Carillo et al., 2015).
Establishment:Established in Mexico (Myartseva et al., 2012; E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.). However, whether these observed populations are from releases or due to prior natural occurrence in Mexico is undetermined.
Impact:No information available.
Arredondo-Bernal, 1999
E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.
G. Reddy, pers. comm.
Gerling, 1966
Martínez Carillo et al., 2015
Myartseva et al., 2012
Noyes, 2017
Shishehbor and Brennan, 1995
Speyer, 1927
Wilson, 1935
Parasitoid

Encarsia inaron (Walker)
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists 14 synonyms: (1) Aphelinus idaeus Walker, (2) Aphelinus inaron Walker, (3) Coccophagus inaron (Walker), (4) Encarsia aleurodis (Mercet), (5) Encarsia aleyrodis (Mercet), (6) Encarsia borealis Hulden, (7) Encarsia brassicae Shafee and Bela, (8) Encarsia indifferentis Mercet, (9) Encarsia partenopea Masi, (10) Myina idaeus (Walker), (11) Trichaporus aleyrodis Mercet, (12) Trichaporus partenopeus (Masi), (13) Trichaporus parthenopeus (Masi), and (14) Trychaporus aleyrodis Mercet.
1989–1990 USA, California (from Europe) (Gould et al., 1992a)Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday)
Aleyrodidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include (1) Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hodson and Beaumont, 1929); (2) Siphoninus granati Priesner and Hosny (Priesner and Hosny, 1932); (3) Aleyrodes proletella (L.) (syn. Aleyrodes brassicae) (Butler, 1936); (4) Asterobemisia avellanae (Signoret) (Viggiani, 1981); (5) Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Mohyuddin et al., 1989); (6) Pealius azaleae (Baker and Moles) (Bene et al., 1991); (7–8) Acaudaleyrodes citri (Priesner and Hosny) and Trialeurodes ricini (Misra) (Abd-Rabou, 2000b); and (9) Neomaskellia andropogonis Corbett (Malekmohammadi et al., 2012). Noyes (2017) lists 13 additional species as hosts: (1) Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (Singh), (2) Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, (3) Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell, (4) Aleyrodes elevatus Silvestri, (5) Aleyrodes lonicerae Walker, (6) Aleyrodes singularis Danzig, (7) Asterobemisia carpini Koch, (8) Asterobemisia paveli (Zahradnik), (9) Bulgarialeurodes cotesii (Maskell), (10) Pealius madeirensis Martin, Aguiar & Pita, (11) Pealius quercus (Signoret), (12) Siphoninus immaculatus Heeger, and (13) Tetraleurodes hederae Goux.
Family
Aleyrodidae (23 species in 12 genera)
E+/I+
Release:Released in California, USA (Gould et al., 1992a)
Establishment:Established readily in California and other states (Bellows et al., 2006).
Impact:Lifetables of cohorts at release sites showed that nymphal mortality (2–4th instars) increased from 51–58% at control sites to 96–98% at release sites (Gould et al., 1992ab). Ash whitefly densities on ash in California were reduced 99.9–99.999% by E. inaron (Dreistadt and Flint, 1995). Economic benefits were calculated for California at $220–299 million dollars (Pickett et al., 1996).
Abd-Rabou, 2000b
Bellows et al., 2006
Bene et al., 1991
Butler, 1936
Dreistadt and Flint, 1995
Gould et al., 1992a
Gould et al., 1992b
Hodson and Beaumont, 1929
Malekmohammadi et al., 2012
Mohyuddin et al., 1989
Noyes, 2017
Pickett et al., 1996
Priesner and Hosny, 1932
Viggiani, 1981
Parasitoid

Encarsia lutea (Masi)
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists three synonyms: (1) Coccophagus sanctus Girault, (2) Encarsia sancta (Girault), and (3) Prospaltella lutea Masi.
1991–1999 USA: (1) Florida: 1991 (from Israel) (Nguyen and Bennett, 1995); (2) Texas, Arizona, and California: 1993–1999 (from Israel via Florida USA) (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature hosts include (1) Acaudaleyrodes citri (Priesner & Hosni) (Rosen, 1966); (2) Asterobemisia avellanae (Signoret) (Viggiani, 1981); (3) Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Kajita, 1981); (4) Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Longo et al., 1990); and (5–6) Aleurolobus spp. (Abd-Rabou, 1997) and Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Abd-Rabou and Abou-Setta, 1998). Males are parasitoids of moth eggs (Stoner and Butler, 1965), including Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Noyes, 2017). Noyes (2017) lists 42 whiteflies as additional hosts, plus 1 coccid scale: (1) Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (Singh), (2) Aleurocanthus cinnamomi Takahashi, (3) Aleurocanthus zizyphi Priesner & Hosny, (4) Aleurolobus marlatti (Quaintance), (5) Aleurolobus niloticus Priesner & Hosny, (6) Aleurolobus rhododendri Takahashi, (7) Aleurolobus setigerus Quaintance and Baker (Ryberg), (8) Aleurolobus wunni (Ryberg) (9) Aleuroplatus acaciae Bink-Moenen, (10) Aleuroplatus pectiniferus Quaintance & Baker, (11) Aleurotrachelus jelinekii (Frauenfeld), (12) Aleurotrachelus rhamnicola (Goux), (13) Aleurotrachelus rubi Takahashi, (14) Aleurotuberculatus aucubae (Kuwana), (15) Aleurotuberculatus ficicola Takahashi, (16) Aleurotuberculatus gordoniae Takahashi ( a synonym of Aleuroclava gordoniae [Takahashi]), (17) Aleurotuberculatus jasmini Takahashi, (18) Aleurotuberculatus malloti Takahashi, (19) Aleurotuberculatus melastomae Takahashi, (20) Aleurotuberculatus psidii (Singh), (21) Aleyrodes azaleae (Baker & Moles), (22) Aleyrodes lonicerae Walker, (23) Aleyrodes proletella L., (24) Asterobemisia atraphaxius (Danzig), (25) Asterobemisia carpini Koch, (26) Bemisia ovata (Goux), (27) Bemisia porteri Corbett, (28) Bemisia salicaria Danzig, (29) Bulgarialeurodes cotesii (Maskell), (30) Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), (31) Dialeurodes fici Takahashi, (32) Dialeurodes formosensis Takahashi, (33) Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Kotinsky), (34) Dialeuropora decempuncta (Quaintance rind Baker), (35) Pealius azalea (Baker and Moles), (36) Pealius mori (Takahashi), (37) Pealius setosus Danzig, (38) Singhius hibisci Kotinsky, (39) Taiwanaleyrodes meliosmae Takahashi, (40) Tetralicia sp., (41) Trialeurodes abutiloneus Haldeman, and (42) Trialeurodes ricini (Misra), as well as the only non-whitefly, the coccid Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché).
Family
?: Aleyrodidae (48 species in 19 genera); ?: LEPIDOPTERAN EGGS
E-/I-
Release:(1) Florida, USA: Released in Florida (Nguyen and Bennett, 1995). (2) Texas, Arizona, and California: Released in the western United States (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003).
Establishment:(1) Florida: Not established (Nguyen and Bennett, 1995). (2) Texas, Arizona, and California: Not established in the western United States (Goolsby et al., 2005).
Impact:Field evaluation not possible due to lack of establishment in either Florida or the western USA, but see cage evaluation by Goolsby et al., (1998).
Abd-Rabou and Abou-Setta, 1998
Abd-Rabou, 1997
Goolsby et al., 1998
Goolsby et al., 2005
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Kajita, 1981
Longo et al., 1990
Nguyen and Bennett, 1995
Noyes, 2017
Rosen, 1966
Stoner and Butler, 1965
Viggiani, 1981
Parasitoid

Encarsia noyesi Hayat
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists three synonyms: (1) Encarsiella noyesi Hayat, (2) Dirphys noyesi (Hayat), and (3) Dyrphis noyesi (Hayat).
1997 USA,California (from Mexico) (Bellows and Meisenbacher, 2000)Aleurodicus dugesii Cockerell
Aleyrodidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. Literature records include (1) Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Blanco-Metzler and Laprade, 1998) and (2) Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Boughton et al., 2015). Noyes (2017) lists 4 other whiteflies as hosts: (1) Aleurodicus cocois (Curtis), (2) Aleurodicus maritimus Hempel, (3) Aleurodicus pulvinatus (Maskell), and (4) Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell), as well as 2 mealybugs (Pseudococcidae): Nipaecoccus aurilanatus (Maskell) and Puto barberi (Cockerell).
Family? or Genus?
Aleyrodidae (7 species in 2 genera [6 in Aleurodicus], plus records of 2 species in 2 genera of the Pseudococcidae that need confirmation)
E+/I+
Release:Released in southern California, USA (Bellows and Meisenbacher, 2000).
Establishment:Established in a variety of locations in southern California (Bellows and Meisenbacher, 2000).
Impact:Dense whitefly populations were observed to decline to unimportant levels (complete biological control), due to the action of this parasitoid and that of another parasitoid, Idioporus affinis LaSalle, released in the same biocontrol project (Bellows and Meisenbacher, 2000).
Bellows and Meisenbacher, 2000
Blanco-Metzler and Laprade, 1998
Boughton et al., 2015
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Encarsia nr diaspidicola (Silvestri)
Aphelinidae

Taxonomic identity of this entity is unclear. For lack of confirmed species identity, Noyes (2017) could not be consulted for synonyms. This species may be the same or different from E. diaspidicola discussed above.
1990–1995 USA, Massachusetts (from China) (Van Driesche et al., 1998a)Unaspis euonymi (Comstock)
Diaspididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Diaspidids that were not parasitized by E. diaspidicola in laboratory host range testing (see entry above) were Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Cooley), Aspidiotus destructor Signoret, and Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Neumann et al., 2010). If this entity is the same as E. diaspidicola, then literature hosts, both diaspidids, are (1) Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Sands et al., 1990) and (2) Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) (Matadha et al., 2005). For lack of confirmed species identity, Noyes (2017) could not be consulted for host records.

Diaspididae (if same as E. diaspidicola) (2 species in 2 genera, but see also entry for Encarsia diaspidicola for additional hosts)
E-/I-
Release:Released in several states in the northeastern United States (Van Driesche et al., 1998a; Matadha et al., 2003).
Establishment:Recoveries were initially made in Massachusetts, but long-term establishment was not demonstrated (Van Driesche et al., 1998a); no evidence for establishment was obtained following releases in New Jersey (Matadha et al., 2003).
Impact:No observed impact on pest by E. nr diaspidicola, but see records for Coccobius nr fulvus and Chilocorus kuwanae (Silvestri) that indicate successful control of pest by project.
Matadha et al., 2003
Matadha et al., 2005
Neumann et al., 2010
Noyes, 2017
Sands et al., 1990
Van Driesche et al., 1998a
Parasitoid

Encarsia nr hispida De Santis
Aphelinidae

Taxonomic identity unclear, but it is assumed here to be E. hispida. Note, E. hispida is no longer considered a synonym of E. meritoria (Polaszek et al., 1992). For lack of confirmed species identity, Noyes (2017) could not be consulted for synonyms.
1995–1996 USA, Texas, Arizona, and California (from Brazil) (Goolsby et al., 1998; Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003). Release years are for California and Arizona (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008).Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records (for E. nr hispida +E. hispida) include (1–2) Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westw.) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Maignet and Onillon, 1997); (3) Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Viscarret et al., 2000); (4–6) Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar, Tetraleurodes sp., and Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) (Trujillo et al., 2004); (7) Paraleyrodes minei Iaccarino (Telli and Yigit, 2012). For lack of confirmed species identity, Noyes (2017) could not be consulted for literature hosts.
Family
Aleyrodidae (7 species in 6 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Texas, Arizona, and California USA (Goolsby et al., 1998; Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003).
Establishment:Not established in the western United States (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003; Goolsby et al., 2005).
Impact:Not applicable
Goolsby et al., 1998
Goolsby et al., 2005
Gould et al., 2008
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Maignet and Onillon, 1997
Polaszek et al., 1992
Telli and Yigit, 2012
Trujillo et al., 2004
Viscarret et al., 2000
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Parasitoid

Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd)
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists nine synonyms: (1) Coccophagus sophia Girault and Dodd, (2) Encarsia bemisiae (Ishii), (3) Encarsia shafeei Hayat, (4) Encarsia sublutea (Silvestri), (5) Encarsia transvena (Timberlake), (6) Prospaltella bemisiae Ishii, (7) Prospaltella flava Shafee, (8) Prospaltella sublutea Silvestri, and (9) Prospaltella transvena Timberlake.
1995 USA, Texas, Arizona, and California (from Pakistan) (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003). Dates listed are for California and Arizona (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008).Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host range testing was done before release. Literature host records include Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Kumar and Gupta, 2006) and Bemisia tuberculata Bondar (Vásquez-Ordóñez et al., 2015). Noyes (2017) lists 25 other species of whiteflies in 18 genera as primary hosts of this parasitoid: (1) Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (Singh), (2) Aleurocybotus indicus (Aleyin), (3) Aleurodicus dispersus Russell, (4) Aleuroduplidens eucalyptifolia Martin, (5) Aleurolobus niloticus Priesner & Hosny, (6) Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell), (7) Aleyrodes hibisci Kotinsky, (8) Aleyrodes proletella L., (9) Aleyrodes singularis Danzig, (10) Asterobemisia carpini Koch, (11) Asterochiton sonchi (Kotinsky), (12) Bemisia afer Priesner & Hosny, (13) Bemisia hibisci Visnya, (14) Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana), (15) Chitonaleyrodes sp., (16) Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), (17) Dialeuropora decempuncta Quaintance & Baker, (18) Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana), (19) Pealius hibisci (Kotinsky), (20) Pealius longispinus Takahashi, (21) Pealius mori (Takahashi), (22) Singhius hibisci (Kotinsky), (23) Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance), (24) Vasdavidius indicus (David & Subramaniam), and (25) Xenaleyrodes sp. In addition, Noyes (2017) lists some additional records that seem to need further confirmation: Aphis sacchari (Aphididae), Diaspis sp. (Diaspididae), and Diaphorina citri (Liviidae).
Family
Aleyrodidae (28 species in 20 genera). Other records of uncertain accuracy: 3 other less credible records exist that would need confirmation, including 1 each in Aphididae, Diaspididae, and Liviidae.
E+/I?
Release:Released in Texas, Arizona, and California in the USA (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003).
Establishment:Established in California (Gould et al., 2008) and Texas (Goolsby et al., 2009).
Impact:Field cage evaluation (Goolsby et al., 1998); no other information on impact.
Goolsby et al., 1998
Goolsby et al., 2005
Goolsby et al., 2009
Gould et al., 2008
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Kumar and Gupta, 2006
Noyes, 2017
Vásquez-Ordóñez et al., 2015
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Parasitoid

Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd)
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists nine synonyms: (1) Coccophagus sophia Girault and Dodd, (2) Encarsia bemisiae (Ishii), (3) Encarsia shafeei Hayat, (4) Encarsia sublutea (Silvestri), (5) Encarsia transvena (Timberlake), (6) Prospaltella bemisiae Ishii, (7) Prospaltella flava Shafee, (8) Prospaltella sublutea Silvestri, and (9) Prospaltella transvena Timberlake.
1996 USA, Puerto Rico (from Pakistan) (Pantoja et al., 2005; Gould et al., 2008)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host range testing was done before release. Literature host records include Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Kumar and Gupta, 2006) and Bemisia tuberculata Bondar (Vásquez-Ordóñez et al., 2015). Noyes (2017) lists 25 other species of whiteflies in 18 genera as primary hosts of this parasitoid: (1) Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (Singh), (2) Aleurocybotus indicus (Aleyin), (3) Aleurodicus dispersus Russell, (4) Aleuroduplidens eucalyptifolia Martin, (5) Aleurolobus niloticus Priesner & Hosny, (6) Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell), (7) Aleyrodes hibisci Kotinsky, (8) Aleyrodes proletella L., (9) Aleyrodes singularis Danzig, (10) Asterobemisia carpini Koch, (11) Asterochiton sonchi (Kotinsky), (12) Bemisia afer Priesner & Hosny, (13) Bemisia hibisci Visnya, (14) Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana), (15) Chitonaleyrodes sp., (16) Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), (17) Dialeuropora decempuncta Quaintance & Baker, (18) Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana), (19) Pealius hibisci (Kotinsky), (20) Pealius longispinus Takahashi, (21) Pealius mori (Takahashi), (22) Singhius hibisci (Kotinsky), (23) Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance), (24) Vasdavidius indicus (David & Subramaniam), and (25) Xenaleyrodes sp. In addition, Noyes (2017) lists some additional records that seem to need further confirmation: Aphis sacchari (Aphididae), Diaspis sp. (Diaspididae), and Diaphorina citri (Liviidae).
Family
Aleyrodidae (28 species in 20 genera). Other records of uncertain accuracy: 3 other less credible records exist that would need confirmation, including 1 each in Aphididae, Diaspididae, and Liviidae.
E+/I+
Release:Released in Puerto Rico (Pantoja et al., 2005; Gould et al., 2008).
Establishment:Established in Puerto Rico (Pantoja et al., 2005; Gould et al., 2008).
Impact:In Puerto Rico, E. sophia became the dominant parasitoid of B. tabaci (Pantoja et al., 2005).
Goolsby et al., 1998
Gould et al., 2008
Kumar and Gupta, 2006
Noyes, 2017
Pantoja et al., 2005
Vásquez-Ordóñez et al., 2015
Parasitoid

Encarsia strenua (Silvestri)
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Prospaltella strenua Silvestri.
1987–1995? (exact date not stated) USA, California (from Puerto Rico) (Bellows and Arakawa, 1995) Dialeurodes citrifolii (Morgan)
Aleyrodidae

HRT-
No laboratory host range testing done before release. Literature host records include (1) Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Goolsby et al., 1998); (2) Trialeurodes variabilis (Trujillo et al., 2004); and (3–4) Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) and Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Soto et al., 2001). Noyes (2017) lists 8 other whiteflies as primary hosts of this parasitoid: (1) Aleurolobus subrotundus Silvestri, (2) Aleuroplatus sp., (3) Asterochiton sp. (4) Bemisia giffardi (Kotinsky), (5) Dialeurodes eugeniae Maskell, (6) Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Kotinsky), (7) Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday), and (8) Trialeurodes packardi (Morrill).
Family
Aleyrodidae (13 species in 8 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in California, USA (Bellows and Arakawa, 1995).
Establishment:Establishment in California not confirmed (Bellows and Arakawa, 1995).
Impact:Not applicable
Bellows and Arakawa, 1995
Goolsby et al., 1998
Noyes, 2017
Soto et al., 2001
Trujillo et al., 2004
Parasitoid

Encarsia tabacivora Viggiani
Aphelinidae

Introduced as Encarsia nr pergandiella Howard. Relationships in the E. pergandiella species complex have been reviewed by Gebiola et al. (2017), who state that the form introduced to the USA from Brazil as Encarsia nr pergandiella was E. tabacivora. Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Encarsia bemisiae De Santis.
1995–1996 USA, Texas, Arizona, and California (from Brazil) (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003). Dates listed are for California and Arizona (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008).Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Encarsia tabacivora is known from few hosts, but this may be due in part to the inability until recently to separate this species from others in the complex (Gebiola et al., 2017). Noyes (2017) lists 4 additional species as hosts: (1) Aleurodicus dispersus Russell, (2) Aleurotrachelus trachoides Back, (3) Trialeurodes abutiloneus (Haldane), and (4) Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood.
Family
?: Aleyrodidae (5 species in 4 genera); ?: Aphelinidae Males develop as hyperparasitoids of whitefly parasitoids, e.g., Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Zhang et al., 2015)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Texas, Arizona, and California in the USA (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003).
Establishment:Not established in the western United States (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008).
Impact:Not applicable. See Goolsby et al. (1998) for results of a field-cage trial.
Gebiola et al., 2017
Goolsby et al., 1998
Gould et al., 2008
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Noyes, 2017
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Zhang et al., 2015
Parasitoid

Enoggera reticulata Naumann
Pteromalidae

For species description, see Naumann (1991). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2000 USA, California (native to Australia but obtained from South Africa, where it had been introduced earlier for biocontrol of another species of Trachymela [Tribe and Cillié, 2000]) (Millar et al., 1999–2000; Paine and Millar, 2002)Trachymela sloanei Blackburn
Chrysomelidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include only 2 chrysomelids: Paropsisterna sp. and Trachymela tincticollis (Blackburn) (Naumann, 1991; Tribe and Cillié, 2000). Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts.
Family
Chrysomelidae (3 species in 2 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in California, USA (Millar et al., 1999–2000; Paine and Millar, 2002).
Establishment:Enoggera reticulata did not establish in California (J. Millar, pers. comm.; Paine et al., 2015).
Impact:Not applicable
J. Millar, pers. comm.
Millar et al., 1999–2000
Naumann, 1991
Noyes, 2017
Paine and Millar, 2002
Paine et al., 2015
Tribe and Cillié, 2000
Parasitoid

Entedononecremnus krauteri Zolnerowich and Rose
Eulophidae

For species description, see Zolnerowich and Rose (1996). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1997 USA, Florida (from California USA, where it was introduced before 1985 from Texas USA, where it was adventitve) (see Table 4, p. 164 of Frank and McCoy, 2007)Aleurodicus dugesii Cockerell
Aleyrodidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. There are no other literature host records. Noyes (2017) lists no other species as hosts.
Possibly Species
Aleyrodidae (known only from the target pest)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Florida, USA (see Table 4, p. 164 of Frank and McCoy, 2007).
Establishment:Established in Florida (Frank and McCoy, 2007).
Impact:No information available.
Frank and McCoy, 2007
Noyes, 2017
Zolnerowich and Rose, 1996
Parasitoid

Ephedrus plagiator (Nees)
Braconidae

Yu (2017) lists three synonyms: (1) Ephedrus homostigma Fahringer, (2) Ephedrus japonicus Ashmead, and (3) Ephedrus parcicornis (Nees).
1988–1992 USA, Washington state and Colorado (from Morocco and the Middle East) (Tanigoshi et al., 1995; Elliott et al., 1995)Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov)
Aphididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. Various aphids are recorded as literature hosts, including (1) Aphis pomi de Geer (Cierniewska, 1973); (2) Aphis glycines Matsumura (Chang et al., 1994); (3) Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Devi et al., 1999); (4–6) Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), and Macrosiphum (Sitobion) avenae (F.) (Rakhshani et al., 2008); (7) Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum (Olive) (Takada and Nakamura, 2010); and (8) Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Ji et al., 2014).
Family
Aphididae (8 species in 7 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in the USA in Washington state (Tanigoshi et al., 1995) and in Colorado (Elliott et al., 1995).
Establishment:Ephedrus plagiator did not establish in Colorado (Burd et al., 2001). No information is available about establishment in Washington.
Impact:Not applicable
Burd et al., 2001
Chang et al., 1994
Cierniewska, 1973
Devi et al., 1999
Elliott et al., 1995
Ji et al., 2014
Rakhshani et al., 2008
Takada and Nakamura, 2010
Tanigoshi et al., 1995
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus emiratus Zolnerowich & Rose
Aphelinidae

For species description, see Zolnerowich and Rose (1998). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1996–1998 USA, California, Arizona, Texas (from United Arab Emirates) (dates for California and Arizona from W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008; Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003; Goolsby et al., 2005)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts recorded in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no field hosts other than Bemisia tabaci.
Possibly Species
Aleyrodidae (known only from the target pest)
E+/I-
Release:Released in California, Arizona, and Texas in the USA (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003; Goolsby et al., 2005).
Establishment:Established in California and Arizona, but not Texas (Goolsby et al., 2005; Gould et al., 2008).
Impact:For field-cage evaluation see Goolsby et al. (1998) and Hoelmer (2007). In post release monitoring, E. emiratus (from United Arab Emirates) was recovered but only in small numbers and did not dominate the parasitoid complex at any of the sites studied by Goolsby et al. (2005).
Goolsby et al., 1998
Goolsby et al., 2005
Gould et al., 2008
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Hoelmer et al., 2007
Noyes, 2017
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Zolnerowich and Rose, 1998
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus emiratus Zolnerowich & Rose
Aphelinidae

For species description, see Zolnerowich and Rose (1998). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
About 1995 Mexico, Baja California (from United Arab Emirates via USA) (Cota-Gómez et al., 1998; E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts recorded in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no field hosts other than Bemisia tabaci.
Possibly Species
Aleyrodidae (known only from the target pest)
E?/I-
Release:Released in Baja California, Mexico (Cota-Gómez et al., 1998; E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Unknown.
Impact:Not applicable
Cota-Gómez et al., 1998
E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.
Noyes, 2017
Zolnerowich and Rose, 1998
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich
Aphelinidae

This species is native to the southwestern USA (Goolsby et al., 2005) and may also be native to Mexico. Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
About 1995 Mexico, Baja California (from commercial insectaries, but originally from Arizona USA) (Cota-Gómez et al., 1998 and E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.).Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Noyes (2017) lists, in addition to B. tabaci, (1) Trialeurodes abutiloneus Haldeman, (2) Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, and (3) Trialeurodes variabilis (Quaintance) as hosts.
Family
Aleyrodidae (4 species in 2 genera)
E?/I-
Release:This species, which may have been naturally occurring in Mexico, was imported from commercial insectaries and released in Baja California, Mexico (Cota-Gómez et al., 1998 and E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.).
Establishment:The status of this species in Mexico is undetermined.
Impact:Not applicable
Cota-Gómez et al., 1998
E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.
Goolsby et al., 2005
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus furuhashii Rose and Zolnerowich
Aphelinidae

For species description, see Rose and Zolnerowich (1994). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1993–1999 USA, Texas, Arizona, and California (from Taiwan) (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature hosts include Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana) (Rose and Zolnerowich, 1994). Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts besides B. tabaci and P. myricae.
Family
Aleyrodidae (2 species in 2 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in the USA in Texas, Arizona, and California (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003).
Establishment:Did not establish in the USA.
Impact:For results of field-cage trials with E. furuhashii (unnamed and coded as Eretmocerus sp. M95026 Taiwan), see Goolsby et al. (1998).
Goolsby et al., 1998
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Noyes, 2017
Rose and Zolnerowich, 1994
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus hayati Zolnerowich & Rose
Aphelinidae

For species description, see Zolnerowich and Rose (1998). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1996–1999 USA, Texas, Arizona, California (from Pakistan) (dates for California and Arizona from W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts recorded in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no other field hosts.
Possibly Species
Aleyrodidae (known only from the target pest)
E+/I+
Release:Released in the USA in Texas, Arizona, and California (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003).
Establishment:Established in Texas but not Arizona or California (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003; Goolsby et al., 2005).
Impact:For field-cage evaluation see Goolsby et al. (1998). In Texas (Rio Grande River Valley), E. hayati was the dominant parasitoid recovered (Goolsby et al., 2005).
Goolsby et al., 1998
Goolsby et al., 2005
Gould et al., 2008
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Noyes, 2017
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Zolnerowich and Rose, 1998
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus hayati Zolnerowich & Rose
Aphelinidae

For species description, see Zolnerowich and Rose (1998). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1997 Mexico (from Pakistan via USA)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts recorded in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no other field hosts.
Possibly Species
Aleyrodidae (known only from the target pest)
E?/I?
Release:Released in Mexico (Gould et al., 2008).
Establishment:No information available.
Impact:No information available.
Gould et al., 2008
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Noyes, 2017
Zolnerowich and Rose, 1998
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus hayati Zolnerowich & Rose
Aphelinidae

For species description, see Zolnerowich and Rose (1998). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1997 USA, Puerto Rico (from Pakistan via USA) (Pantoja et al., 2005)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts recorded in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no other field hosts.
Possibly Species
Aleyrodidae (known only from the target pest)
E+/I-
Release:Released in Puerto Rico (Pantoja et al., 2005).
Establishment:Established in Puerto Rico (Pantoja et al., 2005).
Impact:Of all parasitoids of B. tabaci, only 10% were in Eretmocerus, indicating that E. hayati did not become a dominant parasitoid of B. tabaci on the island (Pantoja et al., 2005).
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Noyes, 2017
Pantoja et al., 2005
Zolnerowich and Rose, 1998
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus melanoscutus Zolnerowich & Rose
Aphelinidae

For species description, see Zolnerowich and Rose (1998). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1994–1996 USA: Texas (1994), Arizona and California (1995–1996) (from Thailand and Taiwan) (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts recorded in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no other field hosts.
Possibly Species
Aleyrodidae (known only from the target pest)
E+/I?
Release:Released in the USA in Texas, Arizona, and California (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003).
Establishment:Did not establish in Arizona or California (Goolsby et al., 2005); recovered in Texas (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008).
Impact:No information available.
Goolsby et al., 2005
Gould et al., 2008
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Noyes, 2017
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Zolnerowich and Rose, 1998
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus mundus Mercet
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists the following synonyms: Eretmocerus aligarhensis Khan and Shafee and Eretmocerus longipilus Khan and Shafee.
1994 USA, Texas, Arizona, and California (from Spain and Israel) (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. In the laboratory, 2 species of Trialeurodes were attacked (T. abutilonea [Haldeman] and T. vaporariorum [Westwood]) (Greenberg et al., 2009). Field surveys in California found E. mundus only from B. tabaci, not from non-target whiteflies (Pickett et al., 2013a). Noyes (2017) lists 12 additional hosts: (1) Acaudaleyrodes citri Priesner & Hosny; (2) Aleuroplatus cadabae Priesner & Hosny; (3) Aleyrodes proletella L. (Onillon et al., 2004); (4) Asterobemisia avellanae (Signoret); (5) Asterobemisia carpini (Koch); (6) Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny) (Viggiani and Battaglia, 1983); (7) Bemisia ovata (Goux); (8) Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Kotinsky); (9) Neomaskellia bergii, (Signoret) (Tiwari et al., 1978); (10) Rosanovia hulthemiae Danzig; (11) Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Abd-Rabou and Abou-Setta, 1998); and (12) Trialeurodes ricini (Misra) (Kapadia and Puri, 1993).
Family
Aleyrodidae (15 species in 10 genera)
E+/I+
Release:Released in the USA in Texas, Arizona, and California (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003).
Establishment:Established in Texas (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003; Goolsby et al., 2005) and California (Roltsch, 2000; Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003; Goolsby et al., 2005), but not Arizona (Goolsby et al., 2005).
Impact:For field cage evaluations see Goolsby et al. (1998). In post-release monitoring, E. mundus was the dominant parasitoid recovered in the San Joaquin Valley, but not the Imperial Valley of California. Also, it was only a minor parasitoid among those recovered in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas (Goolsby et al., 2005).
Abd-Rabou and Abou-Setta, 1998
Cervantes and Cota, 1992
Cota-Gómez et al., 1998
E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.
Goolsby et al., 1998
Goolsby et al., 2005
Greenberg et al., 2009
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Kapadia and Puri, 1993
Noyes, 2017
Onillon et al., 2004
Pantoja et al., 2005
Pickett et al., 2013a
Roltsch, 2000
Tiwari et al., 1978
Viggiani and Battaglia, 1983
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus mundus Mercet
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists the following synonyms: Eretmocerus aligarhensis Khan and Shafee and Eretmocerus longipilus Khan and Shafee.
About 1995 or later Mexico, Baja California (source not stated) (Cervantes and Cota, 1992; Cota-Gómez et al., 1998; E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. In the laboratory, 2 species of Trialeurodes were attacked (T. abutilonea [Haldeman] and T. vaporariorum [Westwood]) (Greenberg et al., 2009). Field surveys in California found E. mundus only from B. tabaci, not from non-target whiteflies (Pickett et al., 2013a). Noyes (2017) lists 12 additional hosts: (1) Acaudaleyrodes citri Priesner & Hosny; (2) Aleuroplatus cadabae Priesner & Hosny; (3) Aleyrodes proletella L. (Onillon et al., 2004); (4) Asterobemisia avellanae (Signoret); (5) Asterobemisia carpini (Koch); (6) Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny) (Viggiani and Battaglia, 1983); (7) Bemisia ovata (Goux); (8) Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Kotinsky); (9) Neomaskellia bergii, (Signoret) (Tiwari et al., 1978); (10) Rosanovia hulthemiae Danzig; (11) Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Abd-Rabou and Abou-Setta, 1998); and (12) Trialeurodes ricini (Misra) (Kapadia and Puri, 1993).
Family
Aleyrodidae (15 species in 10 genera)
E?/I-
Release:Released in Baja California, Mexico (Cervantes and Cota, 1992; Cota-Gómez et al., 1998; E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Establishment in Mexico unknown.
Impact:Not applicable
Abd-Rabou and Abou-Setta, 1998
Cervantes and Cota, 1992
Cota-Gómez et al., 1998
E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.
Greenberg et al., 2009
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Kapadia and Puri, 1993
Noyes, 2017
Onillon et al., 2004
Pantoja et al., 2005
Pickett et al., 2013a
Tiwari et al., 1978
Viggiani and Battaglia, 1983
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus mundus Mercet
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists the following synonyms: Eretmocerus aligarhensis Khan and Shafee and Eretmocerus longipilus Khan and Shafee.
1996 USA, Puerto Rico (from Spain and Israel) (Pantoja et al., 2005)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. In the laboratory, 2 species of Trialeurodes were attacked (T. abutilonea [Haldeman] and T. vaporariorum [Westwood]) (Greenberg et al., 2009). Field surveys in California found E. mundus only from B. tabaci, not from non-target whiteflies (Pickett et al., 2013a). Noyes (2017) lists 12 additional hosts: (1) Acaudaleyrodes citri Priesner & Hosny; (2) Aleuroplatus cadabae Priesner & Hosny; (3) Aleyrodes proletella L. (Onillon et al., 2004); (4) Asterobemisia avellanae (Signoret); (5) Asterobemisia carpini (Koch); (6) Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny) (Viggiani and Battaglia, 1983); (7) Bemisia ovata (Goux); (8) Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Kotinsky); (9) Neomaskellia bergii, (Signoret) (Tiwari et al., 1978); (10) Rosanovia hulthemiae Danzig; (11) Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Abd-Rabou and Abou-Setta, 1998); and (12) Trialeurodes ricini (Misra) (Kapadia and Puri, 1993).
Family
Aleyrodidae (15 species in 10 genera)
E+/I-
Release:Released in Puerto Rico (Pantoja et al., 2005).
Establishment:Established in Puerto Rico (Pantoja et al., 2005).
Impact:Of all parasitoids of B. tabaci, only 10% were in Eretmocerus, indicating that E. mundus did not become a dominant parasitoid of B. tabaci on the island (Pantoja et al., 2005).
Abd-Rabou and Abou-Setta, 1998
Cervantes and Cota, 1992
Cota-Gómez et al., 1998
E. Ruiz Cancino, pers. comm.
Greenberg et al., 2009
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Kapadia and Puri, 1993
Noyes, 2017
Onillon et al., 2004
Pantoja et al., 2005
Pickett et al., 2013a
Tiwari et al., 1978
Viggiani and Battaglia, 1983
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus nr emiratus Zolnerowich & Rose
Aphelinidae

Taxonomic identity of this species is unclear. For lack of confirmed species identity, Noyes (2017) could not be consulted for synonyms.
1997–1999 USA, California, Arizona, Texas (from Ethiopia) (dates for California and Arizona from W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008; Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003; Goolsby et al., 2005)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. Literature host records include Aleyrodes lonicerae Walker in China (Yu, 2015). For lack of confirmed species identity, Noyes (2017) could not be consulted for literature hosts.
Family
Aleyrodidae (2 species in 2 genera)
E+/I+
Release:Release. Released in California, Arizona, and Texas, USA (Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003; Goolsby et al., 2005).
Establishment:Established in California (Roltsch, 2000; Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003; Goolsby et al., 2005) and Arizona (Goolsby et al., 2005; Gould et al., 2008), but not Texas (Goolsby et al., 2005).
Impact:For field-cage evaluation see Goolsby et al. (1998); Eretmocerus nr emiratus (from Ethiopia) was the most commonly collected of the Eretmocerus species released against B. tabaci in the Imperial Valley in California and in the area of Yuma, Arizona in post-release monitoring (Goolsby et al., 2005).
Goolsby et al., 1998
Goolsby et al., 2005
Gould et al., 2008
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Roltsch, 2000
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Yu, 2015
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus rui Zolnerowich and Rose
Aphelinidae

For species description, see Zolnerowich and Rose (2004). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
About 1994–1995 USA, Florida (from Hong Kong) (Nguyen and Bennett, 1995)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. Noyes (2017) lists 2 additional hosts: (1) Bemisia emiliae (Chen & Ko) and (2) Crenidorsum turpiniae (Takahashi).
Family
Aleyrodidae (3 species in 2 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Zolnerowich and Rose, 2004).
Establishment:While some post-release recoveries were made, it is uncertain if E. rui has established in Florida (Zolnerowich and Rose, 2004).
Impact:Not applicable
Nguyen and Bennett, 1995
Noyes, 2017
Zolnerowich and Rose, 2004
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus staufferi Rose and Zolnerowich
Aphelinidae

For species description, see Rose and Zolnerowich (1997). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1994 USA, California and Arizona (from Texas USA, where it is either native or adventitiously introduced [Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003]) (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include Trialeurodes abutiloneus Haldeman (Rose and Zolnerowich, 1997). Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts besides B. tabaci and T. abutiloneus.
Family
Aleyrodidae (2 species in 2 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in the USA in California and Arizona (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008).
Establishment:Not established in California or Arizona (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008).
Impact:Not applicable
Gould et al., 2008
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Noyes, 2017
Rose and Zolnerowich, 1997
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Parasitoid

Eretmocerus tejanus Rose & Zolnerowich
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1994 USA, California and Arizona (from Texas, where it is a native species [Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003]) (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture, based on Gould et al., 2008)Bemisia tabaci strain B (Gennadius)
Aleyrodidae

Formerly called Bemisia argentifolii (= Middle East-Asia Minor 1)
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts apart from B. tabaci.
Possibly Species
Aleyrodidae (known only from the target pest)
E-/I-
Release:Released in the USA in California and Arizona (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture).
Establishment:Not established in California or Arizona (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture).
Impact:Not applicable
Gould et al., 2008
Hoelmer and Goolsby, 2003
Noyes, 2017
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Parasitoid

Euplectrus maternus Bhatnagar Eulophidae

Eulophidae



Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1999–2001, Guam, USA (from India) (Muniappan et al., 2004)Eudocima (Othreis) fullonia (Clerck)
Noctuidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Noyes (2017) lists 2 additional species of underwing moths in the genus Eudocima as hosts of E. maternus: Eudocima materna L. and Eudocima homaena (Hübner) (Bhumannavar and Viraktamath, 2000).
Genus
Noctuidae (3 species in 1 genus, Eudocima)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Guam (Muniappan et al., 2004).
Establishment:No evidence of establishment was obtained despite weekly monitoring for two years (Muniappan et al., 2004).
Impact:Not applicable
Bhumannavar and Viraktamath, 2000
Muniappan et al., 2004
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Euplectrus nr parvulus Ferrière
Eulophidae

Taxonomic identity unclear, but if this is E. parvulus, then Euplectrus plecopterae Mani is a synonym (Noyes, 2017). For lack of confirmed species identity, Noyes (2017) could not be consulted for synonyms.
1986–1987 Guam, USA (from India, possibly Kerala [Rajeshwari and Chacko, 1992]) (Nafus, 1991)Penicillaria jocosatrix Guenée
Noctuidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. If this is E. parvulus, then Noyes (2017) lists the following additional host species: (1) Pyrilla sp. (Hemip.: Lophopidae); (2–3) the geometrid moths Boarmia selenaria Schiffermüller and Tephrina disputaria Guenée; and (4) the noctuid moth Plecoptera reflexa Guenée (Chatterjee, 1945).
Unknown
The host range of this entity is uncertain due in part to a lack of species identification. For E. parvulus, hosts are recorded in two lepidopteran families (Geometridae and Noctuidae) and one hemipteran family (Lophopidae) (Noyes, 2017). The Hemiptera record should be confirmed.
E+/I+
Release:Released on Guam (Nafus, 1991).
Establishment:Established on Guam (Nafus, 1991).
Impact:“The wasps Aleiodes sp. [given here as Aleiodes nr circumscriptus] and Euplectrus sp. [given here as Euplectrus nr parvulus] and the fly Blepharella lateralis were released. Aleiodes sp. did not establish, but Euplectrus sp. and B. lateralis did. [Due to the 2 established species,] populations of the pest fell to 25% of their pre-release levels. Parasitism rates ranged from 20 to 99%. Euplectrus sp. was the most abundant parasitoid …[and] was more abundant in the dry season, whereas B. lateralis was more common in the wet season. Fruit production on monitored trees increased significantly” (Nafus, 1991). Positive foodweb effects also occurred that benefitted other mango-feeding Lepidoptera after decline of the pest species (Schreiner and Nafus, 1992, 1993).
Chatterjee, 1945
Nafus, 1991
Noyes, 2017
Rajeshwari and Chacko, 1992
Schreiner and Nafus, 1992
Schreiner and Nafus, 1993
Parasitoid

Eurithia consobrina (Meigen)
Tachinidae

Formerly in Ernestia.
1986–1987 Canada, Manitoba (from Germany) (Turnock and Carl, 1995; Mason et al., 2002)Mamestra configurata Walker
Noctuidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. Of 5 non-target noctuid species tested by placing a fly maggot on the test larva, 4 (Agrotis ipsilon [Hufnagel], Lacanobia radix [Walker], Pseudaletia unipuntata [Haworth], and Eruois occulta [L.]) supported development to pupation (Turnock and Carl, 1995). Literature host records include (1) Lacanobia oleracea (L.) (Noctuidae) Zorin and Zorina, 1928); (2) Mamestra brassicae (L.) (Noctuidae) (Yastrebov, 1978); (3–5) Laconobia splendens (Hübner), Laconobia suasa (D. & S.), Melanchra persicariae (L.) (all Noctuidae) (Turnock and Carl, 1995).
Family
Noctuidae (2 subfamilies, Noctuinae and Hadeninae)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Manitoba, Canada (Turnock and Carl, 1995; Mason et al., 2002).
Establishment:Not established in Canada (Turnock and Carl, 1995; see p. 172 of Mason et al., 2002).
Impact:Not applicable
Erlandson, 2013
Mason et al., 2002
Turnock and Carl, 1995
Yastrebov, 1978
Zorin and Zorina, 1928
Parasitoid

Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau–Desvoidy)
Tachinidae

Synonym is Erythrocera scutellaris. Eurystheae is a misspelling of the generic name in Unruh et al. (2003).
1989–1991 USA, Washington state (from France) (see Table 1 of Unruh et al., 2003) Yponomeuta malinellus (Zeller)
Yponomeutidae

Given formerly as Hyponomeuta malinellus
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Hosts recorded in the literature include species in 3 families: (1) the pyralid Acrobasis consociella (Hübner) (Lerer and Plugar, 1962); (2) the yponomeutid Yponomeuta padellus (L.) (Heusinger, 1981); and (3) the geometrid Abraxas pantaria (L.) (Pernek et al., 2015).
Order
LEPIDOPTERA: Pyralidae, Yponomeutidae, and Geometridae
E-/I-
Release:Released in Washington state, USA (Unruh et al., 2003).
Establishment:Not recovered in Washington (Unruh et al., 2003).
Impact:Not applicable
Heusinger, 1981
Lerer and Plugar, 1962
Pernek et al., 2015
Unruh et al., 2003
Parasitoid

Eurytoma erythrinae Gates and Delvare
Eurytomidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2008 USA, Hawaii (from East Africa) (Kaufman and Yalemar, 2017)Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim
Eulophidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. None of the 7 non-target gall-makers tested—1 native, 4 biocontrol agents, 2 adventive species—were attacked (HDOA, 2008). Species tested were Josephiella microcarpae Beardsley & Rasplus, Tectococcus ovatus Hempel, Ophelimus sp., Trioza sp., Eutreta xanthochaeta Aldrich, Procecidochares alani Steyskal, and Procecidochares utilis Stone) (HDOA, 2008). Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts, nor are any recorded in the literature.
Possibly Species
Eulophidae (known only from the target pest)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Hawaii (Kaufman and Yalemar, 2017).
Establishment:Widely established in Hawaii (Kaufman and Yalemar, 2017).
Impact:Widespread reduction of leaf galling documented by Kaufman and Yalemar (2017) but not Bell et al. (2013).
Bell et al., 2013
HDOA, 2008
Kaufman and Yalemar, 2017
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Euxestonotus error (Fitch)
Platygastridae

Also given as Platygaster error.
1995 Canada, Saskatchewan (from Switzerland and surrounding parts of central Europe) (Doane et al., 2002)Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin)
Cecidomyiidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts known from literature.
Possibly Species
Cecidomyiidae (known only from the target pest)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Saskatchewan, Canada (Doane et al., 2002).
Establishment:Establishment in Saskatchewan was not confirmed by Doane et al. (2013) since only three individuals were recovered in the year following release. However, establishment in Canada can be inferred by the subsequent recovery of E. error in Montana, in areas not receiving releases, which was attributed to natural spread from Canada (Echegaray et al., 2016).
Impact:Impact in Canada unknown.
Doane et al., 2002
Doane et al., 2013
Echegaray et al., 2016
Parasitoid

Euxestonotus error (Fitch)
Platygastridae

Also given as Platygaster error.
2015 USA, Montana (from Switzerland and surrounding parts of central Europe via Saskatchewan, Canada) (G. Reddy, pers. comm.)Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin)
Cecidomyiidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. No other hosts known from literature.
Possibly Species
Cecidomyiidae (known only from the target pest)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Montana (G. Reddy, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Not recovered at release sites in Montana (G. Reddy, pers. comm.) but recovered in other parts of Montana, due to natural spread from Canada (Echegaray et al., 2016).
Impact:Not applicable for the intentionally-introduced population. No studies have been conducted on the impact of the naturally-spread population in Canada.
Doane et al., 2002
Echegaray et al., 2016
G. Reddy, pers. comm.
Parasitoid

Fidiobia asina (Loiacono)
Platygastridae

For species description, see Loiacono (1982). Also given as Platystasius asinus Loiacono in Frank and McCoy (1993 [see page 30]).
1991 USA, Florida (from Chile) (see p. 30 of Frank and McCoy, 1993)Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)
Curculionidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include Naupactus xanthographus Germar (Loiacono, 1982).
Family
Curculionidae (2 species in 2 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (see p. 30 of Frank and McCoy, 1993).
Establishment:Establishment in Florida undetermined (see p. 30 of Frank and McCoy, 1993).
Impact:Not applicable
Frank and McCoy, 1993
Loiacono, 1982
Parasitoid

Fidiobia dominica Evans and Peña
Platygastridae

For species description, see Evans and Peña (2005).
2006 USA, Florida (from Dominica in the Caribbean) (Evans and Peña, 2005)Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)
Curculionidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include only Diaprepes doublierii Guérin (Evans and Peña, 2005); D. abbreviatus was parasitized in the laboratory (Duncan et al., 2007).
Possibly Genus
Curculionidae (2 species in 1 genus). Likely attacks only weevils whose eggs are concealed in plant tissues.
E?/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Jacas et al., 2007).
Establishment:Unknown if it established in Florida.
Impact:Not applicable
Duncan et al., 2007
Evans and Peña, 2005
Jacas et al., 2007
Parasitoid

Fopius ceratitivorus Wharton
Braconidae

For species description, see Wharton (1999).
2017 USA, Hawaii (from Kenya via Guatemala) (Lopez et al., 2003; R. Messing, pers. comm.)Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)
Tephritidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. In laboratory host-range tests, the non-target native Hawaiian tephritid Trupanea dubautiae (Bryan), infesting flowerheads of the endemic Asteraceae shrub Dubautia raillardioides Hillebrand, was not attacked (Wang et al., 2004). Similarly, 3 other tephritids (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett], Bactrocera dorsalis [Hendel], and Bactrocera latifrons [Hendel]) were tested and not attacked (Bokonon-Ganta et al., 2005). Environmental assessment of the proposed release is given by Messing (2014).
Possibly Species
Tephritidae (known only from the target pest, but not tested against other Ceratitis species, as none occur in Hawaii)
E?/I-
Release:Released in Hawaii, USA (R. Messing, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Establishment in Hawaii not determined.
Impact:Not applicable
Bokonon-Ganta et al., 2005
Lopez et al., 2003
Messing, 2014
R. Messing, pers. comm.
Wang et al., 2004
Wharton, 1999
Parasitoid

Goetheana shakespearei Girault
Eulophidae

Noyes (2017) lists four synonyms: (1) Dasyscapus parvipennis Gahan; (2) Dasyscapus thripsivorous Narayanan, Subba Rao and Ramachandra; (3) Goetheana parvipennis (Gahan); and (4) Goetheana thripsivora (Narayanan, Subba Rao and Ramachand).
1986 USA, Florida (from Gold Coast in Africa via Trinidad [Adamson, 1936] via Puerto Rico [Bartlett, 1938; see p. 26 of Frank and McCoy, 1993]). Released in California and the Caribbean before 1985. Selenothrips rubocinctus (Girard)
Thripidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Noyes (2017) lists 8 other hosts: (1) Caliothrips insularis (Hood), (2) Ceratothripoides claratris (Shumsher), (3) Dinurothrips hookeri Hood, (4) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), (5) Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), (6) Hercinothrips femoralis (Reuter), (7) Pseudodendrothrips mori Niwa, and (8) Thrips tabaci Lindeman.
Family
Thripidae (9 species in 9 genera)
E+/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA, after a long history of releases in the Caribbean and California, USA (see sources in p. 26 of Frank and McCoy, 1993).
Establishment:Established in Florida in 1992 (see p. 26 of Frank and McCoy, 1993), but population detected may have spread from earlier establishments in the Caribbean.
Impact:No information found on impact in Florida.
Adamson, 1936
Bartlett, 1938
Frank and McCoy, 1993
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Goniozus pakmanus Gordh
Bethylidae

For species description see Gordh (1984).
1984–1985 USA: Arizona (1984), California (1985) (from Pakistan) (Gordh and Medved, 1986)Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)
Gelechiidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts of Goniozus pakmanus are listed in the literature.
Unknown
Gelechiidae (known only from the target pest. However, because this species is an idiobiont, it is unlikely that it is host specific, but rather that too little information is known for this species to assess its host range.)
E?/I?
Release:Released in Arizona and California, USA (Gordh and Medved, 1986).
Establishment:Establishment in Arizona and California not determined (Gordh and Medved, 1986).
Impact:Unknown
Gordh and Medved, 1986
Gordh, 1984
Parasitoid

Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam & Agarwal
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1998 USA, U.S. Virgin Islands, St. Thomas (from Pakistan and Egypt) (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture)Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Noyes (2017) lists 4 other mealybugs species as hosts: (1) Ferrisia virgata Cockerell, (2) Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), (3) Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, and (4) Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti). Post-hoc sampling of non-target mealybugs in California following release of the parasitoid (and its establishment there on the target) did not detect any parasitism of either Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley or Ferrisia species (Roltsch et al., 2006).
Family
Aleyrodidae (5 species in 5 genera, but 2 literature host species were not attacked in the field in California [Roltsch et al., 2006])
E+/I+
Release:Released on St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture).
Establishment:Established in the U.S. Virgin Islands (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture).
Impact:Control in the U.S. Virgin Islands is likely as the target pest was controlled by this parasitoid, in combination with Anagyrus kamali, wherever released in the Carribean (Kairo et al., 2000).
Kairo et al., 2000
Noyes, 2017
Roltsch et al., 2006
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Parasitoid

Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam & Agarwal
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1999 USA, Puerto Rico (from Pakistan and Egypt) (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture)Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Noyes (2017) lists 4 other mealybugs species as hosts: (1) Ferrisia virgata Cockerell, (2) Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), (3) Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, and (4) Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti). Post-hoc sampling of non-target mealybugs in California following release of the parasitoid (and its establishment there on the target) did not detect any parasitism of either Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley or Ferrisia species (Roltsch et al., 2006).
Family
Aleyrodidae (5 species in 5 genera, but 2 literature host species were not attacked in the field in California [Roltsch et al., 2006])
E+/I+
Release:Released in Puerto Rico (Michaud and Evans, 2000).
Establishment:Established in Puerto Rico (Michaud and Evans, 2000).
Impact:In less than two years after release, G. indica was recovered at 29% of all locations sampled and represented 17% of all natural enemy individuals recovered (Michaud and Evans, 2000).
Michaud and Evans, 2000
Noyes, 2017
Roltsch et al., 2006
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Parasitoid

Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam & Agarwal
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1999 Mexico, Baja California (from Pakistan and Egypt via Puerto Rico) (Santiago-Islas et al., 2008)Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Noyes (2017) lists 4 other mealybugs species as hosts: (1) Ferrisia virgata Cockerell, (2) Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), (3) Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, and (4) Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti). Post-hoc sampling of non-target mealybugs in California following release of the parasitoid (and its establishment there on the target) did not detect any parasitism of either Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley or Ferrisia species (Roltsch et al., 2006).
Family
Aleyrodidae (5 species in 5 genera, but 2 literature host species were not attacked in the field in California [Roltsch et al., 2006])
E+/I+
Release:Released in Baja California, Mexico (Santiago-Islas et al., 2008).
Establishment:Established in Mexico (Santiago-Islas et al., 2008).
Impact:Control in Mexico is likely as the target pest was controlled by this parasitoid, in combination with Anagyrus kamali, wherever released in the region (Kairo et al., 2000).
Kairo et al., 2000
Noyes, 2017
Roltsch et al., 2006
Santiago-Islas et al., 2008
Parasitoid

Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam & Agarwal
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2000–2006 USA: California (2000) (from Australia); Florida (2002) and Louisiana (2006) (from Pakistan, Egypt, Australia—mixed colony) (W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture)Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Noyes (2017) lists 4 other mealybugs species as hosts: (1) Ferrisia virgata Cockerell, (2) Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), (3) Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, and (4) Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti). Post-hoc sampling of non-target mealybugs in California following release of the parasitoid (and its establishment there on the target) did not detect any parasitism of either Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley or Ferrisia species (Roltsch et al., 2006).
Family
Aleyrodidae (5 species in 5 genera, but 2 literature host species were not attacked in the field in California [Roltsch et al., 2006])
E+/I+
Release:Released in California, Florida, and Louisiana in the USA (Roltsch et al., 2006).
Establishment:Established in California (Roltsch et al., 2006). Establishment in Florida and Louisiana not recorded.
Impact:Successful control of pink mealybug in California was achieved due to several released natural enemies, resulting in >95% reduction of the pest. Anagyrus kamali was the dominant summer parasitoid with up to 50% parasitism, while G. indica was an important winter parasitoid (Roltsch et al., 2006).
Noyes, 2017
Roltsch et al., 2006
W. Roltsch, pers. comm., California Department of Food and Agriculture
Parasitoid

Haeckeliania sperata Pinto
Trichogrammatidae

For species description, see Pinto (2005). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2005 USA, Florida (from Dominica in the Caribbean) (Pinto, 2005)Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)
Curculionidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. No attack on eggs of 2 non-target Lepidoptera or 2 non-target Coleoptera (1 Coccinellidae and 1 non-Diaprepes Curculionidae) (Peña et al., 2010). Pachnaeus litus Schoenherr (Curculionidae) is a suitable host in the laboratory (Jacas et al., 2010). No other hosts are listed in Noyes (2017).
Family
Curculionidae (2 species in 2 genera). Likely a parasitoid of weevils whose eggs are concealed in plant tissue.
E+/I?
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Jacas et al., 2008).
Establishment:Established in Florida (Peña et al., 2010).
Impact:No information available.
Jacas et al., 2008
Jacas et al., 2010
Noyes, 2017
Peña et al., 2010
Pinto, 2005
Parasitoid

Herpestomus brunnicornis (Gravenhorst)
Ichneumonidae

1989–1991 USA, Washington state (from France [Unruh et al., 2003], Korea and Japan [Lee and Pemberton, 2005])Yponomeuta malinellus (Zeller)
Yponomeutidae

Given formerly as Hyponomeuta malinellus
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature hosts include the following yponomeutids: (1) Yponomeuta malinellus (Zeller) (formerly Hyponomeuta malinellus) (Mokrzecki, 1913); (2) Yponomeuta rorellus (Hübner) (formerly Hyponomeuta rorella) (Tudor and Marcu, 1974); (3 Yponomeuta euonymellus L. (Miczulski and Anasiewicz, 1976); and (4–5) Yponomeuta padella (L.) (formerly Hyponomeuta padellus) and Yponomeuta cagnagellus (Hübner) (Fischer, 1987).
Genus
Yponomeutidae (5 species in 1 genus, Yponomeuta)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Washington state, USA (Unruh et al., 2003; Lee and Pemberton, 2005).
Establishment:Some recoveries of H. brunnicornis were made, but establishment in Washington state was not confirmed (Unruh et al., 2003).
Impact:Not applicable
Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2002
Fischer, 1987
Lee and Pemberton, 2005
Miczulski and Anasiewicz, 1976
Mokrzecki, 1913
Tudor and Marcu, 1974
Unruh et al., 2003
Parasitoid

Herpestomus brunnicornis (Gravenhorst)
Ichneumonidae

1990 Canada, British Columbia (from Japan and Europe) (Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2002)Yponomeuta malinellus (Zeller)
Yponomeutidae

Given formerly as Hyponomeuta malinellus
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature hosts include the following yponomeutids: (1) Yponomeuta malinellus (Zeller) (formerly Hyponomeuta malinellus) (Mokrzecki, 1913); (2) Yponomeuta rorellus (Hübner) (formerly Hyponomeuta rorella) (Tudor and Marcu, 1974); (3 Yponomeuta euonymellus L. (Miczulski and Anasiewicz, 1976); and (4–5) Yponomeuta padella (L.) (formerly Hyponomeuta padellus) and Yponomeuta cagnagellus (Hübner) (Fischer, 1987).
Genus
Yponomeutidae (5 species in 1 genus, Yponomeuta)
E-/I-
Release:Released in British Columbia, Canada (Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2002).
Establishment:No evidence of establishment in Canada (Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2002).
Impact:Not applicable
Cossentine and Kuhlmann, 2002
Fischer, 1987
Lee and Pemberton, 2005
Miczulski and Anasiewicz, 1976
Mokrzecki, 1913
Tudor and Marcu, 1974
Unruh et al., 2003
Parasitoid

Horismenus elineatus Schauff
Eulophidae

For species description, see Schauff (1989). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1990–1992 USA, Florida (from Bolivia via Texas USA or Hawaii USA) (see p. 26 of Frank and McCoy, 1993) Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller)
Pyralidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. There are no other hosts reported in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no additional species as hosts.
Possibly Species
Pyralidae (known only from the target pest, but there is almost no literature)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (see p. 26 of Frank and McCoy, 1993).
Establishment:No evidence of establishment in Florida (see p. 26 of Frank and McCoy, 1993).
Impact:Not applicable
Frank and McCoy, 1993
Noyes, 2017
Schauff, 1989
Parasitoid

Idioporus affinis La Salle et Polaszek
Pteromalidae

For species description, see LaSalle et al. (1997). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1998–2000 USA, California (from Central America) (Bellows and Meisenbacher, 2000)Aleurodicus dugesii Cockerell
Aleyrodidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts reported in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no additional species as hosts.
Possibly Species
Aleyrodidae (known only from the target pest)
E+/I+
Release:Released in California, USA (Bellows and Meisenbacher, 2000).
Establishment:Established in California (Bellows and Meisenbacher, 2000).
Impact:Dense whitefly populations were observed to decline to unimportant levels (complete biological control), due to the action of this parasitoid and that of another parasitoid, Encarsia noyesi Hayat, released in the same biocontrol project (Bellows and Meisenbacher, 2000).
Bellows and Meisenbacher, 2000
LaSalle et al., 1997
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Jarra maculipennis Marsh and Austin
Braconidae

For species description, see Austin et al. (1994).
About 1993 USA, California (from Australia) (J. Millar, pers. comm.)Phoracantha semipunctata (F.)
Cerambycidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts are listed in the literature.
Unknown
Cerambycidae (known only from the target pest, but there is almost no literature. The species is likely restricted to borers in eucalyptus trees due to attraction to host plant odors.)
E-/I-
Release:Released in California, USA (J. Millar, pers. comm.).
Establishment:No record of establishment in California.
Impact:Not applicable
Austin et al., 1994
J. Millar, pers. comm.
Parasitoid

Jarra phoracantha Marsh and Austin

Braconidae



For species description, see Austin et al. (1994).
1993 USA, California (from Australia) (Paine and Millar, 2003)Phoracantha semipunctata (F.)
Cerambycidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts are listed in the literature.
Unknown
Cerambycidae (known only from the target pest, but there is almost no literature. The species is likely restricted to borers in eucalyptus trees due to attraction to host plant odors.)
E-/I-
Release:Released in California, USA (Paine and Millar, 2003).
Establishment:No record of establishment in California.
Impact:Not applicable
Austin et al., 1994
Paine and Millar, 2003
Parasitoid

Larra bicolor Fabricius
Crabronidae

Synonyms include Larra gastrica, L. guiana, and L. scapteriscica (Menke, 1992).
1989 USA, northern Florida (from Bolivia) (Frank and Bennett, 1995). Previously, a population of L. bicolor was established in southern Florida; it originated from releases in the early 1980s of material from Puerto Rico, where it had been introduced earlier from Brazil (Frank and Bennett, 1995). Neoscapteriscus abbreviatus (Scudder)
Gryllotalpidae

Formerly in Scapteriscus.
HRT+
Laboratory host range testing done before release in northern Florida in 1989 by Castner (1984). Larra bicolor parasitized Scapteriscus abbreviatus Scudder, S. didactylus (Latreille), S. imitatus Nickle & Castner, and Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-Tos (previously known as S. acletus) in laboratory tests (Castner, 1984). Attack on one native non-target species, Neocurtilla hexadactyla (Perty), the only native cricket in the family in the region was unsuccessful in >90% of cases (Castner, 1984; Frank et al., 1995), making L. bicolor functionally genus-specific in the USA.
Genus
Gryllotalpidae (5 species in 1 genus, Neoscapteriscus)
E+/I?
Release:Released in northern Florida, USA (Frank and Bennett, 1995; Frank and Walker, 2006).
Establishment:Established in northern Florida (Meagher and Frank, 1998; Frank and Walker, 2006). Larra bicolor occurs throughout Florida (Frank et al., 2009).
Impact:Complete control of two pest mole crickets (Neoscapteriscus vicinus [Scudder] and N. borellii [Giglio-Tos]) occurred in northern Florida. An IPM program using Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) and L. bicolor suppressed N. vicinus and N. borellii, by 95% (Leppla et al., 2007), as measured by catch of flying adults in traps. Since N. abbreviatus is flightless, changes in its populations could not be measured in this manner. The mole cricket biocontrol program produced a benefit to cost return of 52:1 (Mhina et al., 2016).
Castner, 1984
Menke, 1992
Frank and Bennett, 1995
Frank and Walker, 2006
Frank et al., 1995
Frank et al., 2009
Leppla et al., 2007
Meagher and Frank, 1998
Mhina et al., 2016
Parasitoid

Larra bicolor Fabricius
Crabronidae

Synonyms include Larra gastrica, L. guiana, and L. scapteriscica (Menke, 1992).
1989 USA, northern Florida (from Bolivia) (Frank and Bennett, 1995). Previously, a population of L. bicolor was established in southern Florida; it originated from releases in the early 1980s of material from Puerto Rico, where it had been introduced earlier from Brazil (Frank and Bennett, 1995). Neoscapteriscus borellii (Giglio-Tos)
Gryllotalpidae

Formerly in Scapteriscus.
HRT+
Laboratory host range testing done before release in northern Florida in 1989 by Castner (1984). Larra bicolor parasitized Scapteriscus abbreviatus Scudder, S. didactylus (Latreille), S. imitatus Nickle & Castner, and Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-Tos (previously known as S. acletus) in laboratory tests (Castner, 1984). Attack on one native non-target species, Neocurtilla hexadactyla (Perty), the only native cricket in the family in the region was unsuccessful in >90% of cases (Castner, 1984; Frank et al., 1995), making L. bicolor functionally genus-specific in the USA.
Genus
Gryllotalpidae (5 species in 1 genus, Neoscapteriscus)
E+/I+
Release:Released in northern Florida, USA (Frank and Bennett, 1995; Frank and Walker, 2006).
Establishment:Established in northern Florida (Meagher and Frank, 1998; Frank and Walker, 2006). Larra bicolor occurs throughout Florida (Frank et al., 2009).
Impact:Complete control of two pest mole crickets (Neoscapteriscus vicinus [Scudder] and N. borellii [Giglio-Tos]) occurred in northern Florida. An IPM program using Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) and L. bicolor suppressed N. vicinus and N. borellii, by 95% (Leppla et al., 2007), as measured by catch of flying adults in traps. Since N. abbreviatus is flightless, changes in its populations could not be measured in this manner. The mole cricket biocontrol program produced a benefit to cost return of 52:1 (Mhina et al., 2016).
Castner, 1984
Menke, 1992
Frank and Bennett, 1995
Frank and Walker, 2006
Frank et al., 1995
Frank et al., 2009
Leppla et al., 2007
Meagher and Frank, 1998
Mhina et al., 2016
Parasitoid

Larra bicolor Fabricius
Crabronidae

Synonyms include Larra gastrica, L. guiana, and L. scapteriscica (Menke, 1992).
1989 USA, northern Florida (from Bolivia) (Frank and Bennett, 1995). Previously, a population of L. bicolor was established in southern Florida; it originated from releases in the early 1980s of material from Puerto Rico, where it had been introduced earlier from Brazil (Frank and Bennett, 1995). Neoscapteriscus vicinus (Scudder)
Gryllotalpidae

Formerly in Scapteriscus.
HRT+
Laboratory host range testing done before release in northern Florida in 1989 by Castner (1984). Larra bicolor parasitized Scapteriscus abbreviatus Scudder, S. didactylus (Latreille), S. imitatus Nickle & Castner, and Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-Tos (previously known as S. acletus) in laboratory tests (Castner, 1984). Attack on one native non-target species, Neocurtilla hexadactyla (Perty), the only native cricket in the family in the region was unsuccessful in >90% of cases (Castner, 1984; Frank et al., 1995), making L. bicolor functionally genus-specific in the USA.
Genus
Gryllotalpidae (5 species in 1 genus, Neoscapteriscus)
E+/I+
Release:Released in northern Florida, USA (Frank and Bennett, 1995; Frank and Walker, 2006).
Establishment:Established in northern Florida (Meagher and Frank, 1998; Frank and Walker, 2006). Larra bicolor occurs throughout Florida (Frank et al., 2009).
Impact:Complete control of two pest mole crickets (Neoscapteriscus vicinus [Scudder] and N. borellii [Giglio-Tos]) occurred in northern Florida. An IPM program using Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) and L. bicolor suppressed N. vicinus and N. borellii, by 95% (Leppla et al., 2007), as measured by catch of flying adults in traps. Since N. abbreviatus is flightless, changes in its populations could not be measured in this manner. The mole cricket biocontrol program produced a benefit to cost return of 52:1 (Mhina et al., 2016).
Castner, 1984
Menke, 1992
Frank and Bennett, 1995
Frank and Walker, 2006
Frank et al., 1995
Frank et al., 2009
Leppla et al., 2007
Meagher and Frank, 1998
Mhina et al., 2016
Parasitoid

Larra godmani Cameron
Crabronidae

This species was an accidental contaminant in a shipment of L. bicolor (Frank et al., 1995). Synonyms include Larra braunsii Kohl and L. transandina Williams (Menke, 1992).
1988 USA, Florida (from Bolivia) (see p. 32 of Frank and McCoy, 1993)Neoscapteriscus vicinus (Scudder)
Gryllotalpidae

Formerly in Scapteriscus.
HRT-
No laboratory host-range estimation done before release. There are no other hosts recorded in the literature.
Possibly Species
Gryllotalpidae (known only from the main target pest, Neoscapteriscus abbreviatus)
E-/I-
Release:Accidentally released in Florida, USA (see p. 32 of Frank and McCoy, 1993; Frank et al., 1995).
Establishment:Larra godmani did not establish in Florida (see p. 32 of Frank and McCoy, 1993).
Impact:Not applicable
Menke, 1992
Frank and McCoy, 1993
Frank et al., 1995
Parasitoid

Lathrolestes ensator (Brauns)
Ichneumonidae

Synonyms include Tryphonopsis ensator Brauns, Lathrolestes dilatatus (Nordenstrom), and Lathrolestes ensatrix (Schulz) (Yu, 2017).
1995–1999 Canada, Quebec (from Switzerland and surrounding countries) (Vincent et al., 2001a)Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug)
Tenthredinidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No literature records exist of other hosts.
Possibly Species
Tenthredinidae(known only from the target pest)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Quebec, Canada (Vincent et al., 2001a).
Establishment:Established in Quebec (Vincent et al., 2001b; 2016).
Impact:Impact in Canada not yet determined (Vincent et al., 2013).
Vincent et al., 2001a
Vincent et al., 2001b
Vincent et al., 2013
Vincent et al., 2016
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Lathrolestes ensator (Brauns)
Ichneumonidae

Synonyms include Tryphonopsis ensator Brauns, Lathrolestes dilatatus (Nordenstrom), and Lathrolestes ensatrix (Schulz) (Yu, 2017).
2002 USA, New Hampshire (from Switzerland and surrounding countries via Canada) (Vincent et al., 2016)Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug)
Tenthredinidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No literature records exist of other hosts.
Possibly Species
Tenthredinidae (known only from the target pest)
E-/I-
Release:Released in New Hampshire, USA (Vincent et al., 2016).
Establishment:No evidence of establishment in New Hampshire (A. Eaton, pers. comm.).
Impact:Not applicable
A. Eaton, pers. comm.
Vincent et al., 2001a
Vincent et al., 2016
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Lathrolestes thomsoni Reshchikov
Ichneumonidae

For species description, see Reshchikov et al. (2010). The species attacking Profenusa thomsoni in Canada that was later introduced into Alaska was initially misidentified as Lathrolestes luteolator Gravenhorst, which it is not. No synonyms noted by Yu (2017).
2004 USA, Alaska (from Alberta, Canada) (Soper and Van Driesche, 2014; Soper et al., 2015)Profenusa thomsoni (Konow)
Tenthredinidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Not recorded in literature from any other host besides the target.
Species
Tenthredinidae (known only from the main target pest)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Alaska, USA (Soper 2012; Soper and Van Driesche, 2014; Soper et al., 2015).
Establishment:Established in Alaska (Soper, 2011; Soper and Van Driesche, 2014; Soper et al., 2015).
Impact:Release associated with decline of leafminer density, providing complete control due to this species and two naturally occurring parasitoids (Lathrolestes soperi Reshchikov and Aptesis signis Provancher) (Soper et al., 2015).
Reshchikov et al., 2010
Soper, 2012
Soper and Van Driesche, 2014
Soper et al., 2015
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Lemophagus errabundus (Gravenhorst)
Ichneumonidae

2003 USA, New England (from Switzerland, France, and other parts of Europe) (Tewksbury, 2014; Tewksbury et al., 2017)Lilioceris lilii (Scopoli)
Chrysomelidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release (Gold, 2003; Kenis et al., 2003; Casagrande and Kenis, 2004; USDA APHIS, 2017). Of 2 non-target European species of Lilioceris tested, both were attacked. Of 8 species of North American non-Lilioceris species (6 in the same family; 2 in other families), none were attacked (Casagrande and Kenis, 2004). Lemophagus errabundus is functionally monophagous in North America, where there are no native Lilioceris species, although a species in the genus (Lilioceris cheni Gressit and Kimoto) has recently been released in Florida as a biocontrol agent against air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera L.) (Featured Creatures, 2017a).
Genus
Chrysomelidae (3 species in 1 genus, Lilioceris). Given there are no native Lilioceris in North America, this agent is functionally species-specific in North America.
E+/I?
Release:Released in Rhode Island, USA and other New England states (Tewksbury, 2014; Tewksbury et al., 2017).
Establishment:Established in several New England states and spreading (Tewksbury, 2014, Tewksbury et al., 2017).
Impact:Not yet determined.
Casagrande and Kenis, 2004
Featured Creatures, 2017a
Gold, 2003
Kenis et al., 2003
Tewksbury et al., 2017
Tewksbury, 2014
USDA APHIS, 2017
Parasitoid

Liotryphon caudatus (Ratzburg)
Ichneumonidae

Former generic placements include Apistephialtes, Calliephialtes, and Ephialtes. Yu (2017) lists 3 synonyms: Liotryphon brevivalvis (Hensch), Liotryphon foveolatus (Constantineanu & Pisica), and Liotryphon incertus (Hensch).
1992 USA, California and Washington state (from Kazakhstan) (Mills, 2005b)Cydia pomonella (L.)
Tortricidae

Formerly Laspeyresia pomonella L.
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Attacks the fruit-boring and cocoon-forming tortricids Grapholita molesta (Busck) and Grapholita funebrana (Treitschke) (N. Mills, pers. comm.). No other hosts of L. caudatus are recorded in the literature.
Family
Tortricidae (3 species in 2 genera)
E+/I?
Release:Released in California, USA (Mills, 2005ab).
Establishment:Apparent establishment in California (Mills, 2005b).
Impact:No information on impact in California.
Mills, 2005a
Mills, 2005b
N. Mills, pers. comm.
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Lipolexis oregmae Gahan
Braconidae

Synonym is Lipolexis scutellaris Mackauer, the name under which it was introduced into the USA (Persad and Hoy, 2003).
2000 USA, Florida (from Guam) (Persad et al., 2007)Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy)
Aphididae

Formerly Toxoptera citricidus
HRT-
No laboratory host range testing done before release. Literature hosts include (1) Aphis gossypii Glover (Singh et al., 2009); (2) Aphis craccivora Koch (Chang and Youn, 1983); (3) Toxoptera odinae (van der Goot) (Starý and van Harten, 1983); (4–5) Aphis citricola van der Goot and Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Starý and Zeleny, 1983); (6) Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) (Muraleedharan et al., 1988); (7) Toxoptera citricida (syn. = Toxoptera citricidus) Kirkaldy (Hoy et al., 2007b). Post-release field studies in Florida found parasitism of (1) Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe); (2) Aphis craccivora Koch; (3) Aphis spiraecola Patch); and (4) Aphis gossypii Glover (Persad et al., 2007).
Family
Aphididae (7 species in 2 genera)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Persad et al., 2007).
Establishment:Established in Florida (Persad et al., 2007).
Impact:Impact in Florida not determined.
Chang and Youn, 1983
Hoy et al., 2007b
Muraleedharan et al., 1988
Persad and Hoy, 2003
Persad et al., 2007
Singh et al., 2009
Starý and van Harten, 1983
Starý and Zeleny, 1983
Parasitoid

Lixadmontia franki Wood and Cave
Tachinidae

For species description, see Wood and Cave (2006).
2007 USA, Florida (from Honduras) (Cooper et al., 2011)Metamasius callizona (Chevrolat)
Curculionidae

HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. One non-target native Floridian weevil, Metamasius mosieri Barber, was tested and found to be attacked at significant rates in choice and no-choice tests (H. Frank, pers. comm.). Literature hosts include Metamasius quadrilineatus Champion (Suazo et al., 2006).
Genus
Curculionidae (3 species, in 1 genus, Metamasius)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Cooper et al., 2011).
Establishment:Did not establish in Florida as far as is known (Cooper et al., 2011).
Impact:Not applicable
Cooper et al., 2011
H. Frank, pers. comm.
Suazo et al., 2006
Wood and Cave, 2006
Parasitoid

Lysiphlebia japonica (Ashmead)
Braconidae

Synonyms are (1) Lysiphlebia mirzai Shujauddin and (2) Lysiphlebia sacchari Chen (Yu, 2017). Earlier generic placements include Lysiphlebus, Coelonotus, and Aphidius.
1996 USA, Florida (from Taiwan)Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy)
Aphididae

Formerly Toxoptera citricidus
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature hosts include many aphids: (1) Lachnus tropicalis (van der Goot) (Watanabe, 1939); (2) Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Watanabe and Takada, 1967); (3) Aphis gossypii Glover (Takada, 1976); (4) Aphis craccivora Koch (Tian et al., 1981); (5) Aphis glycines Matsumura (Gao, 1985); (6) Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) (Takanashi, 1990); (7) at least 18 species in 11 genera from Korea (Starý et al., 2002); and (8) Aphis hederae Kaltenbach (Kikuchi, 2005).
Family
Aphididae (at least 21 species in 12 genera, most recorded from Korea by Starý et al. [2002]).
E-/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (see p. 532 of Michaud, 2002a).
Establishment:Did not establish in Florida (see p. 532 of Michaud, 2002a).
Impact:Not applicable
Gao, 1985
Kikuchi, 2005
Michaud, 2002a
Starý et al., 2002
Takada, 1976
Takanashi, 1990
Tian et al., 1981
Watanabe and Takada, 1967
Watanabe, 1939
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Lytopylus rufipes (Nees von Esenbeck)
Braconidae

Earlier generic placements include Agathis, Microdus, and Bassus.
1995 USA, California and Washington state (from Kazakhstan) (Mills, 2005b)Cydia pomonella (L.)
Tortricidae

Formerly Laspeyresia pomonella L.
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature hosts include only the target pest and Archips rosanus (L.) (Zlatanova, 1970), but several tortricids and pyralids are believed to be used as hosts (N. Mills, pers. comm.).
Two Families
Tortricidae and Pyralidae
E-/I-
Release:Released in California and Washington, USA (Biocat, 2017).
Establishment:Did not establish in the USA (Biocat, 2017).
Impact:Not applicable
Biocat, 2017
Mills, 2005b
N. Mills, pers. comm.
Zlatanova, 1970
Parasitoid

Macrocentrus prolificus Wharton
Braconidae

For species description, see Wharton (1984). Yu (2017) lists no synonyms.
1985–1987 USA, northern Texas (from Mexico) (Overholt and Smith, 1990)Diatraea grandiosella Dyar
Crambidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature hosts include Diatraea considerata Heinrich (Vejar-Cota et al., 2005) and Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (W. Overholt, pers. comm.).
Genus
Crambidae (3 species in 1 genus, Diatraea)
E-/I-
Release:Released in northern Texas, USA (Overholt and Smith, 1990).
Establishment:Did not establish in northern Texas (Overholt and Smith, 1990).
Impact:Not applicable
Overholt and Smith, 1990
Vejar-Cota et al., 2005
W. Overholt, pers. comm.
Wharton, 1984
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Macroglenes penetrans (Kirby)
Pteromalidae

Noyes (2017) lists nine synonyms: (1) Decatoma penetrans (Kirby), (2) Ichneumon penetrans Kirby, (3) Macroglenes brevicornis Thomson, (4) Macroglenes decipiens (Graham), (5) Macroglenes oculatus Westwood, (6) Macroglennes decipiens (Graham), (7) Macroglennes penetrans (Kirby), (8) Pirene decipiens Graham, and (9) Pirene penetrans (Kirby).
2014 USA, central Montana “golden triangle area” (from Saskatchewan, Canada) (Thompson and Reddy, 2016)Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin)
Cecidomyiidae

Former generic placement in Clinodiplosis
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Noyes (2017) lists one additional cecidomyiid as a host: Contarinia tritici (Kirby).
Family
Cecidomyiidae (2 species in 2 genera)
E+/I?
Release:Released in central Montana “golden triangle area”, USA (Thompson and Reddy, 2016; G. Reddy, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Established in central Montana “golden triangle area” (Thompson and Reddy, 2016).
Impact:The impact of the released population in central Montana has not been determined. However, it is likely to eventually be substantial because in another part of the state (extreme northeastern Montana), a population of M. penetrans that spread on its own from Saskatchewan causes 52% parasitism of S. mosellana (Shanower, 2005).
G. Reddy, pers. comm.
Noyes, 2017
Shanower, 2005
Thompson and Reddy, 2016
Parasitoid

Mallochia pyralidis Wharton
Ichneumonidae

For species description, see Wharton (1985). No synonyms listed by Yu (2017).
1985 USA, Texas (from Mexico) (Wharton, 1985)Eoreuma loftini (Dyar)
Crambidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No hosts listed in literature.
Unknown
Crambidae (known only from the target pest, but there is only one article in literature)
E?/I-
Release:Released in Texas, USA (Wharton, 1985).
Establishment:Unknown if it established or not.
Impact:Unknown
Wharton, 1985
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Mastrus ridens Horstmann
Ichneumonidae

Mastrus ridibundus is a synonym.
1995 USA, California (from Kazakhstan) (Mills, 2005b)Cydia pomonella (L.)
Tortricidae

Formerly Laspeyresia pomonella L.
HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. In New Zealand, some post facto host range testing showed that of 5 species tested, 1 non-target Cydia species (Cydia succedana [Haworth]) and 4 non-Cydia tortricids (Argyroploce chlorosaris Meyrick, Grapholita molesta [Busck], Planotortrix octo Dugdale, and Ctenopseustis obliquana [Walker]) were parasitized, but offspring were small and mostly male; known in native range only from target; but little sampling other than of the target (Charles et al., 2013). Non-target tortricids may be killed by this parasitoid but seem unlikely to support M. ridens populations due to a too-rapid death from the paralyzing venom of the parasitoid.
Family
Tortricidae (6 species in 5 genera)
E+/I?
Release:Released in California, USA (Mills, 2005ab).
Establishment:Established in California (Mills, 2005a).
Impact:Impact not determined.
Charles et al., 2013
Mills, 2005a
Mills, 2005b
Parasitoid

Metaphycus flavus (Howard)
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists five synonyms: (1) Aphycus flavidulus caridei Brèthes, (2) Aphycus flavus Howard, (3) Aphycus hesperidum Mercet, (4) Euaphycus flavus (Howard), and (5) Metaphycus mauritanicus Compere.
1987–1996 USA, California: (1) 1987 (from Italy) (Kennett et al., 1995); (2) 1996 Metaphycus sp. nr flavus (probably M. flavus) was collected from C. pseudomagnoliarum in Turkey and released in 1996 (Bernal et al., 1999) in the context of an augmentative trial against C. pseudomagnoliarum in citrus groves in California (Schweizer et al., 2002). Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana)
Coccidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records were not separately checked due to the large number of host records in Noyes (2017), which may not be comprehensive, but amply demonstrate the wide host range of this species. Noyes (2017) lists 39 species, other than the target pest, in 5 families as hosts (names updated in ScaleNet) Cerococcidae (1) Cerococcus parahybensis Hempel; Coccidae (2) Ceroplastes cirripediformis Comstock, (3) Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, (4) Coccus capparidis (Green), (5) Coccus hesperidum L., (6) Coccus viridis (Green), (7) Eulecanium kunoense (Kuwana), (8) Eulecanium perinflatum (Cockerell), (9) Filippia follicularis (Targioni Tozzetti), (10) Megapulvinaria maxima (Green) (11) Milviscutulus mangiferae (Green), (12) Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), (13) Parthenolecanium corni (Nuzzaci), (14) Parthenolecanium persicae (Fabricius) (15) Parthenolecanium perlatum (Cockerell), (16) Philephedra lutea (Cockerell), (17) Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara & Gill, (18) Protopulvinaria pyriformis Cockerell, (19) Pulvinaria acericola (Walsh & Riley), (20) Pulvinaria elongata Newstead, (21) Pulvinaria flavescens Brethes in Massini & Brethes, (22) Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood), (23) Pulvinaria iceryi (Signoret), (24) Pulvinaria minuta Brethes in Massini & Brethes, (25) Pulvinaria platensis Brethes in Massini & Brethes, (26) Pulvinaria psidii Maskell, (27) Pulvinariella mesembryanthemi (Vallot) (28) Saissetia coffeae (Walker), (29) Saissetia oleae (Gómez-Menor Ortega), (30) Stictolecanium convexum (Hempel) (31) Toumeyella liriodendri (Gmelin); Diaspididae (32) Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.), (33) Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan), (34) Chrysomphalus pinnulifer (Maskell), (35) Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman), (36) Lepidosaphes gloverii (Packard); Eriococcidae (37) Eriococcus joergenseni Morrison; Kerriidae (38) Kerria sp., and (39) Tachardia sp.
Five Families
Cerococcidae (1 species); Coccidae (30 species in 14 genera); Diaspididae (5 species in 2 genera); Eriococcidae (1 species); Kerriidae (2 species in 2 genera)
E-/I-
Release:(1): Released in 1987 in California, USA with population from Italy (Kennett et al., 1995). (2): Released in California in 1996 with population from Turkey (Bernal et al., 1999).
Establishment:(1): The Italian population did not establish in California (Kennett et al., 1995). (2): The Turkish population achieved same season reproduction on target pest in citrus groves, but samples taken a year after release found no evidence of establishment (Schweizer et al., 2002).
Impact:Not applicable
Bernal et al., 1999
Kennett et al., 1995
Noyes, 2017
ScaleNet
Schweizer et al., 2002
Parasitoid

Metaphycus hageni Daane and Caltagirone
Encyrtidae

Introduced as Metaphycus sp. A (see p. 145 of Daane et al., 1995b). For species description, see Daane and Caltagirone (1999). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1986 USA, California (from Spain) (Daane and Caltagirone, 1999)Saissetia oleae (Olivier)
Coccidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts are listed in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts.
Unknown
Coccidae (known only from the target pest, but there is very little literature on this parasitoid)
E+/I?
Release:Released in California, USA (see p. 145 of Daane et al., 1995b).
Establishment:Established in California (see p. 145 of Daane et al., 1995b).
Impact:Impact on target pest not determined.
Daane and Caltagirone, 1999
Daane et al., 1995b
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Metaphycus orientalis (Compere)
Encyrtidae

For species description, see Compere (1924). Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Aphycus orientalis Compere.
1985 USA, California (from Japan) (Kennett, 1988)Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana)
Coccidae

HRT-
No laboratory host range testing done before release. Literature records of other species as hosts include only Coccus hesperidum L. (Compere, 1924). Noyes (2017) lists 1 additional species as a host: Saissetia coffeae (Walker) (Coccidae).
Family
Coccidae (3 species in 2 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in California, USA (Kennett, 1988, 1995).
Establishment:Not established in California, USA (Kennett, 1988; Kennett et al., 1995).
Impact:Not applicable
Compere, 1924
Kennett et al., 1995
Kennett, 1988
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Microctonus hyperodae Loan
Braconidae

For species description, see Loan and Lloyd (1974). Yu (2017) gives this species as Perilitus hyperodae (Loan) but no literature is found under this name.
2002 Canada, Quebec (from Argentina via New Zealand) (Boivin, 2013)Listronotus oregonensis (LeConte)
Curculionidae

A native pest in Quebec
HRT+
Laboratory host-range testing done before release. Of 24 North American weevils tested in Quebec before release, Microctonus hyperodae parasitized 5 species: (1) Listronotus sparsus Say, (2) Listronotus maculcollis Kirby, (3) Nedyus flavicaudus Boheman, (4) Ceutorhynchus erysimi Fabricius, and (5) Gymnetron tetrum Fabricius (Boivin unpub. data, in Boivin, 2013). Other literature hosts include (1) Hyperodes bonariensis Kuschel (Loan and Lloyd, 1974); (2) Irenimus aequalis (Broun) (now synonym of Chalepistes tenebricus) (Goldson et al., 1992); and (3–6) Nicaeana cervina Broun, Irenimus (now Chalepistes) egens (Boun), Irenimus (now Chalepistes) aequalis Broun, and Irenimus (now Chalepistes) stolidus (Barratt et al., 1997). Generic placement revisions based on Brown (2017).
Family
Curculionidae (11 species in 7 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Quebec, Canada (Boivin, 2013).
Establishment:Not established in Quebec (Boivin, 2013).
Impact:Not applicable
Barratt et al., 1997
Boivin, 2013
Brown, 2017
Goldson et al., 1992
Loan and Lloyd, 1974
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Microplitis mediator (Haliday)
Braconidae

Other generic placements include Microgaster. Yu (2017) lists three synonyms: (1) Microplitis halidayi Fahringer, (2) Microplitis medianus (Ruthe), and (3) Microplitis pseudomedianus Fahringer.
1991–1999 Canada, Saskatchewan and Alberta (from Switzerland) (Mason et al., 2002)Mamestra configurata Walker
Noctuidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature records include various noctuids as hosts: (1) Mamestra brassicae (L.) was parasitized in laboratory host range tests, but not Lacanobia oleracea (L.), Mamestra suasa, or Agrotis segetum (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Slovák, 1985); (2) Mamestra configurata Walker (Arthur and Mason, 1986); (3) Mythimna separata (Walker) (Tanaka, 1987); (4) Autographa gamma (L.) (Sengonca and Peters, 1991); (5) Mythimna sequax Franclemont (Foerster et al., 2001); and (6) Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Ren et al., 2004).
Family
Noctuidae (6 species in 5 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Saskatchewan and Alberta, Canada (Mason et al., 2002).
Establishment:Not established in Canada (Mason et al., 2002; Erlandson, 2013).
Impact:Not applicable
Arthur and Mason, 1986
Erlandson, 2013
Foerster et al., 2001
Mason et al., 2002
Ren et al., 2004
Sengonca and Peters, 1991
Slovák, 1985
Tanaka, 1987
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Microterys okitsuensis (Compere)
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1985 USA, California (from Japan) (Kennett, 1988; Kennett et al., 1995)Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana)
Coccidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include (1) Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell (Ishii, 1932) and (2) Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana) (Kennett, 1988). Noyes (2017) lists 4 additional species of coccids as hosts: (1) Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, (2) Coccus hesperidum L., (3) Pulvinaria psidii Maskell, and (4) Saissetia oleae (Olivier).
Family
Coccidae (6 species in 5 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in California, USA (Kennett, 1988; Kennett et al., 1995).
Establishment:Not established in California (Kennett, 1988; Kennett et al., 1995).
Impact:Not applicable
Ishii, 1932
Kennett et al., 1995
Kennett, 1988
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan and Legner
Pteromalidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1985–1987 USA, southern California (from South America [e.g., Chile and Peru]) (Legner et al., 1989; Meyer et al., 1990).Musca domestica L.
Muscidae

HRT-
No laboratory host range testing done before release. Host range testing by Geden and Moon (2009) found all 5 species tested to be successfully parasitized in the laboratory: (1) Musca domestica L. (Muscidae), (2) Haematobia irritans (L.) (Muscidae), (3) Hydrotaea aenescens (Wiedemann) (Muscidae), (4) Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Muscidae), and (5) Sarcophaga bullata (Parker) (Sarcophagidae). Literature field host records include (1) Musca sorbens Wiedemann (Muscidae) (Legner et al., 1974); (2–3) Musca domestica L. (Muscidae) and Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Muscidae) (Lysyk, 2004). Noyes (2017) lists 1 additional species as a host: Calliphora vomitoria (Calliphoridae).
Three Families
Muscidae (5 species in 4 genera), Sarcophagidae (1 species), Calliphoridae (1 species)
E-/I-
Release:Released in cattle (Meyer et al., 1990) and poultry (Legner et al., 1989) facilities in southern California, USA.
Establishment:Establishment was not the objective of the augmentative releases of this parasitoid, but sampling in some locations in California found no permanent increase in parasitism of target flies, suggesting M. raptorellus did not permanently establish (e.g., Petersen and Currey, 1996).
Impact:Temporary increases in rates of parasitism in California followed releases for several weeks, but within the season rates returned to background levels (Petersen and Currey, 1996). Similarly, mass releases in poultry houses in Florida caused partial suppression of M. domestica flies (Geden and Hogsette, 2006), as did releases in dairy calf facilities in New York (Kaufman et al., 2012), but these releases did not result in permanent establishment.
Floate et al., 2000
Geden and Hogsette, 2006
Geden and Moon, 2009
Kaufman et al., 2012
Legner et al., 1974
Legner et al., 1989
Lysyk, 2004
Meyer et al., 1990
Noyes, 2017
Petersen and Currey, 1996
Parasitoid

Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan and Legner
Pteromalidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1996 Canada, southern Alberta (Floate et al., 2000) (source uncertain, likely from commercial insectaries, but ecological source was from South America [e.g., Chile and Peru] [Legner et al., 1989]).Musca domestica L.
Muscidae

HRT-
No laboratory host range testing done before release. Host range testing by Geden and Moon (2009) found all 5 species tested to be successfully parasitized in the laboratory: (1) Musca domestica L. (Muscidae), (2) Haematobia irritans (L.) (Muscidae), (3) Hydrotaea aenescens (Wiedemann) (Muscidae), (4) Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Muscidae), and (5) Sarcophaga bullata (Parker) (Sarcophagidae). Literature field host records include (1) Musca sorbens Wiedemann (Muscidae) (Legner et al., 1974); (2–3) Musca domestica L. (Muscidae) and Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Muscidae) (Lysyk, 2004). Noyes (2017) lists 1 additional species as a host: Calliphora vomitoria (Calliphoridae).
Three Families
Muscidae (5 species in 4 genera), Sarcophagidae (1 species), Calliphoridae (1 species)
E?/I-
Release:Released in cattle facilities in southern Alberta, Canada (Floate et al., 2000).
Establishment:Overwintering survival in cattle facilities in southern Alberta was 1–10% (Floate and Skovgård, 2004), suggesting potential for establishment. However, that has not been demonstrated, it being common for mass releases of agents to result in temporary populations that eventually die out.
Impact:Augmentative releases in cattle feed yards in southern Alberta increased parasitism of M. domestica to about 34% (versus 1–3% in control feed lots) for a short period (Floate et al., 2000).
Floate and Skovgård, 2004
Floate et al., 2000
Geden and Moon, 2009
Legner et al., 1974
Legner et al., 1989
Lysyk, 2004
Meyer et al., 1990
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Myxexoristop hertingi Mesnil
Tachinidae

2002–2004 Canada, Ontario (from Italy) (Lyons, 2013)Acantholyda erythrocephala (L.)
Pamphiliidae

HRT-
No host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include only the target pest, Acantholyda erythrocephala (Pamphiliidae) (Herting, 1957).
Possibly Species
Pamphiliidae (known only from the target pest)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Ontario, Canada (Lyons, 2014).
Establishment:Not established in Canada (Lyons, 2014).
Impact:Not applicable
Herting, 1957
Lyons, 2013
Lyons, 2014
Parasitoid

Nothoserphus afissae (Watanabe)
Proctotrupidae

Synonyms include Disogmus afissae Watanabe and Watanabeia afissae Watanabe.
1988 USA, Maryland (source not recorded, but most likely from from Korea or Japan) (see p. 206 of Barbosa et al., 1994)Epilachna varivestis Mulsant
Coccinellidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include (1) Epilachna niponica (Lewis) (Ohgushi and Sawada, 1998) (formerly given as Henosepilachna pustulosa [Kono] (Nakamura and Ohgushi, 1981); (2) Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata (Motschulsky) (=Epilachna vigintioctomaculata) (Lee et al., 1988); and (3) Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Nakamura and Shiratori, 2010).
Genus
Coccinellidae (Epilachninae) (3 species in 1 genus, Epilachna)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Maryland, USA (see p. 206 of Barbosa et al., 1994).
Establishment:Not established in Maryland (see p. 206 of Barbosa et al., 1994).
Impact:Not applicable
Barbosa et al., 1994
Lee et al., 1988
Nakamura and Ohgushi, 1981
Nakamura and Shiratori, 2010
Ohgushi and Sawada, 1998
Parasitoid

Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2007 USA, Michigan (from northeastern China) (Duan et al., 2010a)Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire
Buprestidae

HRT-
Host range testing done before release. In the laboratory, of 6 non-target Agrilus, 3 were attacked (A. anxius Gory, A. bilineatus [Weber], and A. ruficollis [F.]) and 3 were not (A. cyanescens [Ratzeburg], A. egenus Curtis, and A. subcinctus Gory) (Gould, 2007). Of 6 non-target, non-Agrilus species tested, none were attacked (Gould, 2007). Noyes (2017) lists no other species as hosts.
Genus
Buprestidae (4 species in 1 genus, Agrilus, but 3 only in the laboratory)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Michigan, USA (Duan et al., 2010a).
Establishment:Established in the USA (Abell et al., 2014).
Impact:Post release surveys in Michigan found 10–20% parasitism of the pest’s eggs by O. argili (Abell et al., 2014).
Abell et al., 2014
Duan et al., 2010a
Gould, 2007
Noyes, 2017
Ryall, 2017
Ryall et al., 2019
Parasitoid

Oobius longoi Host race #1 (Siscaro)
Encyrtidae

For species description, see Siscaro (1992). Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Avetianella longoi Siscaro, which is the name in the biocontrol literature.
1993 USA, California (from Victoria, Australia) (Paine et al., 1993; Hanks et al., 1996).Phoracantha semipunctata (F.)
Cerambycidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. This race of Oobius longoi attacks both P. semipunctata and Phoracantha recurva Newman, but prefers the former (Luhring et al., 2000) and does better in it as a host (Luhring et al., 2004) due to lower host encapsulation defenses in P. semipunctata (McDonald et al., 2015). Besides P. recurva and P. semipunctata, Noyes (2017) lists 2 additional cerambycids as hosts of O. longoi: Coptocerus aberrans (Newman) and Epithora dorsalis MacLeay.
Family
Cerambycidae (4 species in 3 genera). Likely restricted to hosts on eucalypts due to attraction to host plant odors.
E+/I+
Release:Released in California, USA (Paine et al., 1993; Hanks et al., 1996).
Establishment:Established in California (Hanks et al., 1996).
Impact:Parasitism in field exceeded 90% (Hanks et al., 1996), controlling the host. See also, Paine and Millar (2003) and McDonald et al. (2015).
Hanks et al., 1996
Luhring et al., 2000
Luhring et al., 2004
McDonald et al., 2015
Noyes, 2017
Paine and Millar, 2003
Paine et al., 1993
Siscaro, 1992
Parasitoid

Oobius longoi Host race #2 (Siscaro)
Encyrtidae

For species description, see Siscaro (1992). This second host race is better adapted to P. recurva (Umeda and Paine, 2015). Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Avetianella longoi Siscaro, which is the name in the biocontrol literature.
2007 USA, California (from New South Wales, Australia) (Wang et al., 2008)Phoracantha recurva Newman
Cerambycidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. This race can successfully develop in P. recurva (Umeda and Paine, 2015; McDonald et al., 2015). Besides P. recurva and P. semipunctata, Noyes (2017) lists 2 additional cerambycids as hosts of O. longoi: Coptocerus aberrans (Newman) and Epithora dorsalis MacLeay.
Family
Cerambycidae (4 species in 3 genera). Likely restricted to hosts on eucalypts due to attraction to host plant odors.
E?/I?
Release:Released in California, USA (J. Millar and T. Paine, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Establishment in California not determined. Trap hosts of P. recurva were deployed to detect parasitism by this host race, but project funding ended before establishment could be confirmed (J. Millar and T. Paine, pers. comm.).
Impact:Not determined.
J. Millar, pers. comm.
McDonald et al., 2015
Noyes, 2017
Siscaro, 1992
T. Paine, pers. comm.
Umeda and Paine, 2015
Wang et al., 2008
Parasitoid

Ormia depleta (Wiedemann)
Tachinidae

Formerly in Euphasiopteryx
1988 USA, Florida (from Brazil) (Frank et al., 1996)Neoscapteriscus borellii (Giglio-Tos)
Gryllotalpidae

Formerly in Scapteriscus.
HRT+
Host-range testing done before release. Ormia depleta was attracted to 3 of 5 Scapteriscus (now Neoscapteriscus) species tested, 2 of which were program targets and 1 a non-target invasive species (Fowler, 1987). Based on attraction to host song (the test deemed most reliable, as such attraction must occur for a species to be a field host), Walker (H. Frank, pers. comm.), indicates that the world host range of Ormia depleta includes N. vicinus, N. borellii (Fowler and Kochalka, 1985), N. imitatus Nickle & Castner (Fowler, 1987), and occasionally N. abbreviatus Scudder (H. Frank, pers. comm., seemingly an error occurring in mixed mole cricket populations) but does not include either Neocurtilla hexadactyla (Perty) (Gryllotalpidae) (contrary to Fowler and Garcia, 1987) or a Brazilian cricket given as Anurogryllus sp. (Gryllidae) (contrary to Fowler and Mesa, 1987; Fowler, 1988).
Genus
Gryllotalpidae (4 species [2 being targets] in 1 genus, Neoscapteriscus)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Frank et al., 1996).
Establishment:Ormia depleta established successfully in Florida (Frank et al., 1996).
Impact:Percentage reduction in trap catch of the two target mole crickets due to biocontrol introductions in Florida ranged from 25 to 81% of former numbers, depending on place, year, and cricket species (Parkman et al., 1996). The target pests became fully controlled (Frank and Walker, 2006), but this change was due to several parasitoid species (O. depleta and L. bicolor) and an introduced entomoparasitic nematode (Steinernema scapterisci Nguyen & Smart) (Parkman et al., 1996). The mole cricket biocontrol program produced a benefit to cost return of 52:1 (Mhina et al., 2016).
Fowler and Garcia, 1987
Fowler and Kochalka, 1985
Fowler and Mesa, 1987
Fowler, 1987
Fowler, 1988
Frank and Walker, 2006
Frank et al., 1996
H. Frank, pers. comm.
Mhina et al., 2016
Parkman et al., 1996
Parasitoid

Ormia depleta (Wiedemann)
Tachinidae

Formerly in Euphasiopteryx
1988 USA, Florida (from Brazil) (Frank et al., 1996)Neoscapteriscus vicinus (Scudder)
Gryllotalpidae

Formerly in Scapteriscus.
HRT+
Host-range testing done before release. Ormia depleta was attracted to 3 of 5 Scapteriscus (now Neoscapteriscus) species tested, 2 of which were program targets and 1 a non-target invasive species (Fowler, 1987). Based on attraction to host song (the test deemed most reliable, as such attraction must occur for a species to be a field host), Walker (H. Frank, pers. comm.), indicates that the world host range of Ormia depleta includes N. vicinus, N. borellii (Fowler and Kochalka, 1985), N. imitatus Nickle & Castner (Fowler, 1987), and occasionally N. abbreviatus Scudder (H. Frank, pers. comm., seemingly an error occurring in mixed mole cricket populations) but does not include either Neocurtilla hexadactyla (Perty) (Gryllotalpidae) (contrary to Fowler and Garcia, 1987) or a Brazilian cricket given as Anurogryllus sp. (Gryllidae) (contrary to Fowler and Mesa, 1987; Fowler, 1988).
Genus
Gryllotalpidae (4 species [2 being targets] in 1 genus, Neoscapteriscus)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Frank et al., 1996).
Establishment:Ormia depleta established successfully in Florida (Frank et al., 1996).
Impact:Percentage reduction in trap catch of the two target mole crickets due to biocontrol introductions in Florida ranged from 25 to 81% of former numbers, depending on place, year, and cricket species (Parkman et al., 1996). The target pests became fully controlled (Frank and Walker, 2006), but this change was due to several parasitoid species (O. depleta and L. bicolor) and an introduced entomoparasitic nematode (Steinernema scapterisci Nguyen & Smart) (Parkman et al., 1996). The mole cricket biocontrol program produced a benefit to cost return of 52:1 (Mhina et al., 2016).
Fowler and Garcia, 1987
Fowler and Kochalka, 1985
Fowler and Mesa, 1987
Fowler, 1987
Fowler, 1988
Frank and Walker, 2006
Frank et al., 1996
H. Frank, pers. comm.
Mhina et al., 2016
Parkman et al., 1996
Parasitoid

Parallorhogas pyralophagus (Marsh)
Braconidae

Formerly Allorhogas pyralophagus, the name under which nearly all literature is found. For species description, see Marsh (1984). Yu (2017) lists no other synonyms.
1985–1987 USA, northern Texas (from Mexico) (Overholt and Smith, 1990)Diatraea grandiosella Dyar
Crambidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include: (1–3) (as laboratory-rearing hosts) Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (given as Maruca testulali) (Crambidae), Tetramoera schistaceana (Snellen) (given as Argyroploce schistaceana) (Tortricidae), and Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) (Crambidae) (Rajabalee and Banymadhub, 1986); (4) Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Crambidae) (Melton and Browning, 1986); (5–9) (as laboratory hosts): Chilo auricilius Dudgeon, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe), Chilo tumidicostalis (Hampson), Bissetia steniellus (Hampson) (all above, Crambidae), and Emmalocera depressella (Swinhoe) (Pyralidae) (Varma et al., 1987); (10) Eldana saccharina Walker (Pyralidae) (Anon., 1987); (11) (as a laboratory host): Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Noctuidae) (Ballal and Kumar, 1989); (12) (as a laboratory host): Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Crambidae) (Castilho et al., 1989); (13) Diatraea centrellus (Möschler) (Crambidae) (Quashie-Williams, 1991); and (14–17) (as laboratory hosts) Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae), Scirpophaga excerptalis Walker (Crambidae), Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Pyralidae), and Galleria mellonella (L.) (Pyralidae) (Easwaramoorthy et al., 1992).
Four Families
Crambidae(10 species in 5 genera), Tortricidae (1 species), Pyralidae (4 species in 4 genera), Noctuidae (1 species, as a laboratory-rearing host)
E-/I-
Release:Released in northern Texas, USA (Overholt and Smith, 1990).
Establishment:Did not establish in northern Texas (Overholt and Smith, 1990), but is established from a pre-1985 release in south Texas on Eoreuma loftini (Meagher et al., 1998).
Impact:No impact in northern Texas, but impact recorded in south Texas on E. loftini (Meagher et al. 1998).
Anon., 1987
Ballal and Kumar, 1989
Castilho et al., 1989
Easwaramoorthy et al., 1992
Marsh, 1984
Meagher et al., 1998
Melton and Browning, 1986
Overholt and Smith, 1990
Quashie-Williams, 1991
Rajabalee and Banymadhub, 1986
Varma et al., 1987
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Pediobius foveolatus (Crawford)
Eulophidae

Noyes (2017) lists 11 synonyms: (1) Mestocharis lividus Girault, (2) Mestocharomyia lividus (Girault), (3) Pediobius epilachnae (Rohwer), (4) Pediobius faveolatus (Crawford), (5) Pediobius mediopunctata (Waterston), (6) Pediobius mediopunctatus (Waterston), (7) Pediobius simiolus (Takahashi), (8) Pleurotropis epilachnae Rohwer, (9) Pleurotropis foveolatus Crawford, (10) Pleurotropis mediopunctata Waterston, and (11) Pleurotropis simiolus Takahashi.
1985 USA, Northern Mariana Islands (from India [Clausen et al., 1978] via the USA through the USDA BIRL laboratory in Delaware, USA) (Chiu and Moore, 1993)Epilachna philippinensis Dieke
Coccinellidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature hosts include (1) Epilachna philippinensis Dieke (Peterson, 1955); (2) Epilachna sparsa (Herbst) (Angelet et al., 1968); (3) Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Nakamura and Shiratori, 2010); (4) Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata Motschulsky (Tachikawa, 1976); (5) Henosepilachna pustulosa (Kono) (Nakamura and Ohgushi, 1981); (6) Epilachna ocellata Redtenbacher (Dhingra et al., 1986); (7–10) Epilachna mexicana (Guérin-Méneville), Epilachna obscurella Mulsant, Mada polluta Mulsant, Malata delphinae (Gorham) (Romero-Nápoles et al., 1987); (11) Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) (as Epilachna vigintioctopunctata (Nakamura et al., 1988); (12) Epilachna similis Mulsant (given as Chnootriba similis) (Beyene et al., 2007). An unusual record in need of confirmation is as a hyperparasitoid on a braconid wasp (Cotesia sp.) (Paulraj and Ignacimuthu, 2007). Noyes (2017) lists 15 additional species as hosts, 8 of which are not in Coccinellidae and need confirmation: Coccinellidae (1) Cheilomenes sexmaculata Fabricius, (2) Coccinella septempunctata (L.), (3) Epilachna chrysomelina (F.), (4) Epilachna dodecastigma Wiedemann, (5) Epilachna tredecimotata, Arctiidae (6) Diacrisia punctulata Wallengren, Lycaenidae (7) Deudorix antalus, Noctuidae (8) Anomis leona (Schaus & Clements), (9) Eublemma gayneri (Rothschild, (10) Heliothis armigera (Hübner), (11) Spodoptera litura Fabricius, Pieridae (12) Aporia crataegi L., Pyralidae (13) Phycita diaphana (Staudinger).
Family?
Coccinellidae (15 species in 4 genera of Epilachninae, dominated by Epilachna [10 species], and 2 species in 2 genera of Coccinellinae). Other records of uncertain accuracy: 8 species in 5 families of Lepidoptera and 1 record as a hyperparasitoid of a braconid
E+/I+
Release:Released in the Northern Mariana Islands (Chiu and Moore, 1993).
Establishment:Established in the Northern Mariana Islands (Chiu and Moore, 1993).
Impact:In a 1989 island-wide survey, 80% of E. philippinensis larvae were parasitized by P. foveolatus, and pesticide applications on solaneous crops (tomato, eggplant) had declined from twice weekly before introduction to just occasional use (Chiu and Moore, 1993).
Angelet et al., 1968
Beyene et al., 2007
Chiu and Moore, 1993
Clausen et al., 1978
Dhingra et al., 1986
Nakamura and Ohgushi, 1981
Nakamura and Shiratori, 2010
Nakamura et al., 1988
Noyes, 2017
Paulraj and Ignacimuthu, 2007
Peterson, 1955
Romero-Nápoles et al., 1987
Tachikawa, 1976
Parasitoid

Pediobius furvus (Gahan)
Eulophidae

Noyes (2017) lists two synonyms: Pediobius furvum (Gahan) and Pleurotropis furvum Gahan.
1985–1987 USA, northern Texas (from Mexico) (Overholt and Smith, 1990)Diatraea grandiosella Dyar
Crambidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Laboratory hosts include (1) Trachylepidia fructicassiella Ragworth (Pyralidae) (Vignes, 1991); (2–3) Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) (Crambidae) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Noctuidae) (Williams, 1970); (4) Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Crambidae) (Overholt and Smith, 1989); and (5) Diatraea lineolata (Crambidae) (Rodríguez-del-Bosque and Smith, 1990). Field hosts include (1–2) Chilo partellus (Crambidae) (Oloo, 1992) and Eoreuma loftini (Crambidae) (Pfannenstiel et al., 1992); (3) Busseola fusca (Fuller)(Noctuidae) (Yitaferu and Gebre-Amlak, 1994); (4) Sesamia cretica Lederer (Noctuidae) (Gahan, 1928); (5) Chilo argyrolepia Hampson (Crambidae) (La Croix, 1967); (6) Eldana saccharina Wilkinson (Pyralidae) (Scheibelreiter, 1980); and (7) Sesamia grisescens Walker (Noctuidae) (Kuniata and Sweet, 1994). Noyes (2017) lists several additional species as hosts: Geometridae (1) Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll); Noctuidae (2) Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner; (3) Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre); (4) Sesamia penniseti Tams & J. Bowden; (5) Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith); Crambidae (6) Chilo orichalcociliellus Strand; (7) Chilo terenellus Pagenstecher; (8) Coniesta ignefusalis (Hampson; (9) Diatraea dyari Box; (10) Diatraea saccharalis (F.); (11) Eodiatraea rufescens (Box); Pyralidae (12) Galleria mellonella (L.) (presumably a laboratory host).
Four Families
Crambidae (12 species in 5 genera), Noctuidae (7 species in 4 genera), Pyralidae (3 species in 3 genera), Geometridae (1 species). Fields hosts are stem borers in grasses.
E-/I-
Release:Released in northern Texas, USA (Overholt and Smith, 1990).
Establishment:Not established in northern Texas (Overholt and Smith, 1990).
Impact:Not applicable
Gahan, 1928
Kuniata and Sweet, 1994
La Croix, 1967
Noyes, 2017
Oloo, 1992
Overholt and Smith, 1989
Overholt and Smith, 1990
Pfannenstiel et al., 1992
Rodríguez-del-Bosque and Smith, 1990
Scheibelreiter, 1980
Vignes, 1991
Williams, 1970
Yitaferu and Gebre-Amlak, 1994
Parasitoid

Peristenus conradi Marsh
Braconidae

Synonym and perhaps current name is Leiophron conradi (Marsh) (Yu, 2017), but the biocontrol literature is under Peristenus.
1986–1990 USA, Delaware (from Europe) (Day et al., 1992)Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze)
Miridae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. There are no other literature host records. Post-release surveys in 2 U.S. states found parasitism of only the target mirid (A. lineolatus) among 7 phytophagous mirid species sampled (Day, 1999, 2005).
Species
Miridae ( known only from the target pest)
E+/I+
Release:Released in Delaware, USA (Day et al., 1992).
Establishment:Established in Delaware (Day et al., 1992).
Impact:At the study site, P. conradi caused 40% parasitism of the target pest (Day et al., 1992) and 22% parasitism of the pest in a later, wider survey (Day, 1999), although reduction of the target pest’s density is reported as “slight” (Day 2005).
Day et al., 1992
Day, 1999
Day, 2005
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Peristenus digoneutis Loan
Braconidae

Leiophron digoneutis (Loan) is a synonym or may be the current name (Loan) (Yu, 2017), but the biocontrol literature is under Peristenus. For species description, see Loan and Bilewicz-Pawinska (1973).
1990–2005 Canada: (1) Saskatchewan: 1981 and 1990–1992 (see Table 32.2, p. 156 of Broadbent et al., 2002), and 2005 (1991-1992 and 2005 releases from Europe via northeastern USA via Ontario/Quebec Canada) (Broadbent et al., 2013). (2) Ontario/Quebec: pre-1985 (spread naturally to Quebec from the USA where it was released earlier [Day et al., 1990]; subsequently intentionally redistributed from Quebec to Ontario [Broadbent et al., 2013])Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)
Miridae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Post-release field host records in the northeastern United States showed that P. digoneutis parasitized only 1 of 7 mirids found in alfalfa fields, the target pest L. lineolaris (Day, 1999; see also Day, 2005). Host literature records from Europe include the following mirid bugs: (1) Lygus rugulipennis Poppius (Bilewicz-Pawinska, 1976); (2–3) Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) and Leptopterna dolobrata (L.) (Haye et al., 2005). Based on European host records and laboratory host range testing, Mason et al. (2011) suggest that the host range of P. digoneutis in North America will be limited to the genus Lygus.
Family
Miridae (4 species in 3 genera). In North America, host range appears to be limited to the genus Lygus (Mason et al., 2011).
E+/I?
Release:(1) Saskatchewan: Released in 1981, 1990–1992, and 2005 in Saskatchewan, Canada (Broadbent et al., 2013). (2) Ontario/Quebec: Before 1985, P. digoneutis spread naturally from the USA to Quebec from where it was intentionally redistributed to Ontario (also pre-1985) (Day et al., 1990; Broadbent et al., 2013).
Establishment:(1): Saskatchewan: Not established at any Saskatchewan release site (Broadbent et al., 2002; Broadbent et al., 2013). (2): Ontario/Quebec: Established pre-1985 in Quebec (Broadbent et al., 1999) and Ontario (Broadbent et al., 2013).
Impact:(1) Saskatchewan: Not applicable. (2) Ontario/Quebec: Impact is “undertermined” in Ontario and Quebec. However, it should be noted that in the northeastern United States, P. digoneutis increased parasitism of the target pest in alfalfa from about 15% by native species to 40–50% (P. digoneutis +native species), and the density of the pest decreased by 75% (Day, 1996; see also Day, 2005). Release of P. digoneutis in the United States occurred before 1985 and so is not recorded separately in this catalog, but events in the United States are referenced because the same degree of impact is likely to occur or have occurred in Ontario and Quebec.
Bilewicz-Pawinska, 1976
Broadbent et al., 1999
Broadbent et al., 2002
Broadbent et al., 2013
Day et al., 1990
Day, 1996
Day, 1999
Day, 2005
Haye et al., 2005
Loan and Bilewicz-Pawinska, 1973
Mason et al., 2011
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Peristenus relictus (Ruthe)
Braconidae

Leiophron relicta is either a synonym or may be the current correct name; other synonyms include Peristenus stygicus and Microctonus relictus (Yu, 2017). The biocontrol literature on the species is under bioth P. relictus and P. stygicus. For species description, see Loan and Bilewicz-Pawinska (1973).
1998 USA, California (from Europe) (Pickett et al., 2007). Peristenus relictus was released earlier in 1973 in California, where it reproduced but later died out (Van Steenwyk and Stern, 1977).Lygus hesperus Knight
Miridae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Host literature records from Europe include the following mirid bugs: (1) Lygus rugulipennis Poppius (Loan and Bilewicz-Pawinska, 1973); (2) Polymerus unifasciatus (F.) (Drea et al., 1973); (3) Lygus hesperus Knight (Butler and Wardecker, 1974); (4–7) Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), Polymerus basalis (Reuter), Labopidicola geminatus (Johnston), and Psallus seriatus (Reuter) (Condit and Cate, 1982); (8) in northern Germany, the field host range of P. relictus includes at least 16 species, in the Mirinae, Phylinae, and Bryocorinae (Haye et al., 2006). Based on European host records and laboratory host range testing, Mason et al. (2011) suggest that the host range of P. relictus in North America will include species in the genus Lygus and other mirids in other genera.
Family
Miridae (various species in several subfamilies)
E+/I+
Release:Released in California, USA (Pickett et al., 2007).
Establishment:Established in California (Pickett et al., 2013b).
Impact:The establishment of P. relictus in two locations in central California was associated with reductions in densities of L. hesperus in alfalfa (Pickett et al., 2013b). In addition, spread of the parasitoid in central California has occurred (Picket et al., 2013b).
Butler and Wardecker, 1974
Condit and Cate, 1982
Drea et al., 1973
Haye et al., 2006
Loan and Bilewicz-Pawinska, 1973
Mason et al., 2011
Pickett et al., 2007
Pickett et al., 2013b
Van Steenwyk and Stern, 1977
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Peristenus relictus (Ruthe)
Braconidae

Leiophron relicta is either a synonym or may be the current correct name; other synonyms include Peristenus stygicus and Microctonus relictus (Yu, 2017). The biocontrol literature on the species is under bioth P. relictus and P. stygicus. For species description, see Loan and Bilewicz-Pawinska (1973).
2014 Mexico, Baja California (source not stated, likely California USA) (H. C. Arredondo-Bernal, pers. comm.)Lygus hesperus Knight
Miridae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Host literature records from Europe include the following mirid bugs: (1) Lygus rugulipennis Poppius (Loan and Bilewicz-Pawinska, 1973); (2) Polymerus unifasciatus (F.) (Drea et al., 1973); (3) Lygus hesperus Knight (Butler and Wardecker, 1974); (4–7) Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), Polymerus basalis (Reuter), Labopidicola geminatus (Johnston), and Psallus seriatus (Reuter) (Condit and Cate, 1982); (8) in northern Germany, the field host range of P. relictus includes at least 16 species, in the Mirinae, Phylinae, and Bryocorinae (Haye et al., 2006). Based on European host records and laboratory host range testing, Mason et al. (2011) suggest that the host range of P. relictus in North America will include species in the genus Lygus and other mirids in other genera.
Family
Miridae (various species in several subfamilies)
E?/I?
Release:Released in Baja California, Mexico (H. C. Arredondo-Bernal, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Establishment in Mexico not determined.
Impact:Not determined
Butler and Wardecker, 1974
Condit and Cate, 1982
Drea et al., 1973
H. C. Arredondo-Bernal, pers. comm.
Haye et al., 2006
Loan and Bilewicz-Pawinska, 1973
Mason et al., 2011
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Phygadeuon wiesmanni Sachtleben
Ichneumonidae

Yu (2017) lists no synonyms for this species.
1985–1991 Canada, Ontario (from Austria, Switzerland, and Germany) (Hoffmeister, 2002)Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)
Tephritidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include other species of Rhagoletis: R. cerasi L. (Weismann, 1933) and R. alternata Fallén (Rygg, 1979).
Genus
Tephritidae (3 species in 1 genus, Rhagoletis)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Ontario, Canada (Hoffmeister, 2002).
Establishment:Not established after release in Ontario (Hoffmeister, 2002).
Impact:Not applicable
Hoffmeister, 2002
Rygg, 1979
Weismann, 1933
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Phymastichus coffea (LaSalle)
Eulophidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms. For species description, see LaSalle (1990).
1992 Mexico, Chiapas (from West Africa via Colombia and Guatemala) (Barrera et al., 2008)Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari)
Curculionidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Post-release, host range testing showed that of the three curculionids tested, all were suitable for parasitism: Araptus sp., Hypothenemus obscurus (Fabricius), and Hypothenemus seriatus (Eichhoff) (López-Vaamonde and Moore, 1998). Also, Castillo et al., (2004) found that of three non-target Hypothenemus species tested, 2 species (H. crudiae [Panzer] and H. eruditus Westwood) were successfully parasitized. at levels of 14 and 6%; Hypothenemus plumeriae (Nordlinger) was not parasitized, nor were 2 species in other weevil genera (Scolytodes borealis Jordal, and Arpatus fossifrons Wood). Noyes (2017) lists no other hosts.
Genus?
Curculionidae (5 species in 1 genus, Hypothenemus). The status of Arpatus species as hosts needs further investigation)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Chiapas, Mexico (Barrera et al., 2008).
Establishment:Not established in Chiapas (Barrera et al., 2008), but it did establish in Honduras (Rafael Trejo et al., 2000) and so may spread naturally into Mexico.
Impact:Not applicable. The measurement of the impact of self-reproducing field populations in Mexico has not yet been possible. However, augmentative sleeve-cage trials under field conditions suggest the potential for substantial control (Infante et al., 2013).
Barrera et al., 2008
Castillo et al., 2004
Infante et al., 2013
LaSalle, 1990
López-Vaamonde and Moore, 1998
Noyes, 2017
Rafael Trejo et al., 2000
Parasitoid

Platygaster tuberosula Kieffer
Platygasteridae

1993 Canada, Saskatchewan (from Switzerland and surrounding parts of central Europe) (Olfert et al., 2003)Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin)
Cecidomyiidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include only the target pest, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Chavalle et al., 2015).
Possibly Species
Cecidomyiidae (known only from the target pest, but literature is extremely limited).
E+/I+
Release:Released in Saskatchewan, Canada (Olfert et al., 2003).
Establishment:Established in Saskatchewan (Olfert et al., 2003).
Impact:Parasitism of target pest in 2011 at one location was measured as 11% (Doane et al., 2013).
Chavalle et al., 2015
Doane et al., 2013
Olfert et al., 2003
Parasitoid

Platygaster tuberosula Kieffer
Platygasteridae

2015 USA, Montana (from Switzerland and surrounding parts of Central Europe via Saskatchewan Canada) (G. Reddy, pers. comm.)Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin)
Cecidomyiidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include only the target pest, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Chavalle et al., 2015).
Possibly Species
Cecidomyiidae (known only from the target pest, but literature is extremely limited).
E+/I?
Release:Released in Montana, USA (G. Reddy, pers. comm.).
Establishment:Established in Montana (G. Reddy, pers. comm.).
Impact:Not yet evaluated
Chavalle et al., 2015
G. Reddy, pers. comm.
Olfert et al., 2003
Parasitoid

Prorops nasuta Waterson
Bethylidae

1988 Mexico, Chiapas (from Kenya and Togo via Brazil) (Barrera et al., 1990a, 2008)Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari)
Curculionidae

HRT-
No host-range testing done before release. Of 5 species tested by Pérez-Lachau and Hardy (2001), P. nasuta parasitized 2 species: Caulophilus oryzae (Gyllenhal) and Sitophilus sp. (both Curculionidae). Literature hosts in include Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) (Balakrishnan et al., 2011).
Family
Curculionidae (4 species in 4 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Chiapas, Mexico (Barrera et al., 1990a, 2008).
Establishment:Not established in Chiapis (Infante et al., 2001; Barrera et al., 2008).
Impact:Not applicable
Balakrishnan et al., 2011
Barrera et al., 1990a
Barrera et al., 2008
Infante et al., 2001
Pérez-Lachaud and Hardy, 2001
Parasitoid

Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier
Phoridae

2010 USA, Florida (from northern Argentina or adjacent countries) (Porter et al., 2013)Solenopsis invicta Buren
Formicidae

HRT+
Host-range testing done before release. This species and all the Pseudacteon listed here are specific to the genus Solenopsis or specific to particular species within the genus. For P. cultellatus, 15 non-target ant species were tested. Flies failed to develop in all 12 species of non-Solenopsis ants (S. Porter, pers. comm.). Flies developed in 3 native Solenopsis fire ants (S. aurea, Wheeler, W.M., S. geminata [F.] and S. xyloni McCook), but production was much lower than with the target host, S. invicta (S. Porter, pers. comm.; Estrada et al., 2006). This species is more host specific than P. curvatus but less than other Pseudacteon species released.
Genus
Formicidae (4 species in 1 genus, Solenopsis)
E+/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Porter et al., 2013).
Establishment:Established in Florida (Porter et al., 2013).
Impact:Probably minimal; still occurs at very low densities in release areas.
Estrada et al., 2006
Porter et al., 2013
S. Porter, pers. comm.
Parasitoid

Pseudacteon curvatus Biotype #1 Borgmeier
Phoridae

2000 USA, Florida (from northern Argentina) (Graham et al. 2003)Solenopsis invicta Buren
Formicidae

HRT+
Host-range testing done before release. This species and all the Pseudacteon listed here are specific to the genus Solenopsis or specific to particular species within the genus. None of the 19 species of ants in non-Solenopsis genera were parasitized (Porter, 2000). Two species of non-target Solenopsis ants were attacked (S. geminata [F.] and S. xyloni McCook) but at lower rates than the target species (Porter, 2000; Vazquez et al., 2004). Host specificity confirmed post-release in field (Vazquez and Porter, 2005).
Genus
Formicidae (3 species in 1 genus, Solenopsis)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Graham et al., 2003).
Establishment:Repeatedly failed to establish on red imported fire ants (S. invicta) in Florida even though it was cultured on them through multiple generations in the laboratory (Graham et al. 2003).
Impact:Not applicable
Graham et al., 2003
Porter, 2000
S. Porter, pers. comm.
Vazquez and Porter, 2005
Vazquez et al., 2004
Parasitoid

Pseudacteon curvatus Biotype #1 Borgmeier
Phoridae

2000 USA, Tennessee (from northern Argentina) (Graham et al. 2003)Solenopsis richteri and hybrids Forel
Formicidae

HRT+
Host-range testing done before release. This species and all the Pseudacteon listed here are specific to the genus Solenopsis or specific to particular species within the genus. None of the 19 species of ants in non-Solenopsis genera were parasitized (Porter, 2000). Two species of non-target Solenopsis ants were attacked (S. geminata [F.] and S. xyloni McCook) but at lower rates than the target species (Porter, 2000; Vazquez et al., 2004). Host specificity confirmed post-release in field (Vazquez and Porter, 2005).
Genus
Formicidae (3 species in 1 genus, Solenopsis)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Tennessee, USA (Graham et al., 2003).
Establishment:Established well in Tennessee and Alabama on the related invasive black imported fire ant (S. richteri) and red/black hybrid ants (S. Porter, pers. comm.)
Impact:Impact on black fire ant in Tennessee and Alabama is unknown.
Graham et al., 2003
Porter, 2000
S. Porter, pers. comm.
Vazquez and Porter, 2005
Vazquez et al., 2004
Parasitoid

Pseudacteon curvatus Biotype #2 ("Formosa" biotype) Borgmeier
Phoridae

2003 USA, Florida (from town of Formosa in Argentina) (Vazquez et al., 2006)Solenopsis invicta Buren
Formicidae

HRT+
Host-range testing done before release. This species and all the Pseudacteon listed here are specific to the genus Solenopsis or specific to particular species within the genus. None of the 19 species of ants in non-Solenopsis genera were parasitized (Porter, 2000). Two species of non-target Solenopsis ants were attacked (S. geminata [F.] and S. xyloni McCook) but at lower rates than the target species (Porter, 2000; Vazquez et al., 2004). Host specificity confirmed post-release in field (Vazquez and Porter, 2005).
Genus
Formicidae (3 species in 1 genus, Solenopsis)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Florida, USA, following the failure of the first biotype (Vazquez et al., 2006; Callcott et al. 2011).
Establishment:The “Formosa” biotype established on S. invicta in Florida (Vazquez et al., 2006; Porter, 2010) and beyond (Callcott et al., 2011).
Impact:Impact not yet determined in Florida.
Callcott et al., 2011
Porter, 2000
Porter, 2010
S. Porter, pers. comm.
Vazquez and Porter, 2005
Vazquez et al., 2004
Vazquez et al., 2006
Parasitoid

Pseudacteon litoralis Borgmeier
Phoridae

1995–2005 USA, Texas (1995), Florida and Louisiana (2003–2006), and Alabama (2005) (from northern Argentina) (Porter et al., 2011)Solenopsis invicta Buren
Formicidae

HRT+
Host-range testing was done before release. This species and all the Pseudacteon listed here are specific to the genus Solenopsis or specific to particular species within the genus. There was no attack on 27 non-target non-Solenopsis ants (Porter et al., 1995; Porter and Alonso, 1999). One non-target species of Solenopis (S. geminata) was attacked (at 9% of rate on the target pest), but there was no successful development (Gilbert and Morrison, 1997); in Brazil in a field test, there were no attacks on S. geminata (Porter, 1998).
Species Group
Formicidae (2 species in 1 genus, Solenopsis)
E+/I?
Release:Released in the USA in Texas, Florida, Louisiana, and Alabama (S. Porter, pers. comm.; Porter et al., 2011).
Establishment:Establishment failed in Texas, Florida, and Louisiana, but succeeded in Alabama (Porter et al., 2011)
Impact:Impact in Alabama not yet determined.
Gilbert and Morrison, 1997
Porter and Alonso, 1999
Porter et al., 1995
Porter et al., 2011
Porter, 1998
S. Porter, pers. comm.
Parasitoid

Pseudacteon nocens Borgmeier
Phoridae

2006–2010 USA, Texas (from northern Argentina) (Plowes et al., 2012)Solenopsis invicta Buren
Formicidae

HRT+
Host-range testing was done before release. This species and all the Pseudacteon listed here are specific to the genus Solenopsis or specific to particular species within the genus. A low level of parasitism occurred on one non-target native Solenopsis species, S. geminata (F.), which was attacked at about 1/5 the rate on the target pest (Estrada et al., 2006).
Genus
Formicidae (2 species in 1 species group within 1 genus, Solenopsis)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Texas, USA (Plowes et al., 2012).
Establishment:Established in Texas and spreading (Plowes et al., 2012).
Impact:Impact not yet determined.
Estrada et al., 2006
Plowes et al., 2012
Parasitoid

Pseudacteon obtusus Borgmeier
Phoridae

2006–2007 USA, Texas (2006) and Florida (2007) (from northern Argentina)Solenopsis invicta Buren
Formicidae

HRT+
Host range testing was done before release. This species and all the Pseudacteon listed here are specific to the genus Solenopsis or specific to particular species within the genus. One non-target Solenopsis (S. geminata [F.]) was tested and was not attacked in one assessment (Morrison and Gilbert, 1999), but was at about 10% the rate of attack on the target pest in another assessment (Estrada et al., 2006).
Genus
Formicidae (2 species in 1 genus, Solenopsis)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Texas and Florida, USA (Gilbert et al., 2008; Porter and Calcaterra, 2013).
Establishment:Established in Texas and Florida (Gilbert et al., 2008; Porter and Calcaterra, 2013).
Impact:Impact not yet determined.
Estrada et al., 2006
Gilbert et al., 2008
Morrison and Gilbert, 1999
Porter and Calcaterra, 2013
Parasitoid

Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier
Phoridae

1997 USA, Florida (from Brazil and Argentina) (Porter et al., 1999)Solenopsis invicta Buren
Formicidae

HRT+
Host-range testing was done before release. This species and all the Pseudacteon listed here are specific to the genus Solenopsis or specific to particular species within the genus. In quarantine, of 6 non-target, non-Solenopsis species in 5 genera offered, none were attacked (Porter and Alonso, 1999). After establishment in Florida, host specificity was confirmed by disturbing fire ant mounds, exposing non-target ants to potential attack. Of 14 species in 12 genera exposed in this manner, none were attacked (Morrison and Porter, 2006). Solenopsis geminata (F.) was either attacked at a very low rate (4% of rate on target [Gilbert and Morrison, 1997; Porter and Alonso, 1999]) or not at all (Morrison and Porter, 2006), or without production of fly progeny (Porter, 1998).
Species Group
Formicidae (2 species in 1 species group within 1 genus, Solenopsis)
E+/I-
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Porter et al., 1999).
Establishment:Established in Florida (Porter et al., 1999) and subsequently in other states (Callcott et al., 2011).
Impact:Initial impacts in Florida were not sufficient to be detected above natural population variability (Morrison and Porter, 2005).
Callcott et al., 2011
Gilbert and Morrison, 1997
Morrison and Porter, 2005
Morrison and Porter, 2006
Porter and Alonso, 1999
Porter et al., 1999
Porter, 1998
Parasitoid

Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier
Phoridae

1995 USA, Texas (from Brazil and Argentina) (Porter et al., 1999)Solenopsis richteri and hybrids Forel
Formicidae

HRT+
Host-range testing was done before release. This species and all the Pseudacteon listed here are specific to the genus Solenopsis or specific to particular species within the genus. In quarantine, of 6 non-target, non-Solenopsis species in 5 genera offered, none were attacked (Porter and Alonso, 1999). After establishment in Florida, host specificity was confirmed by disturbing fire ant mounds, exposing non-target ants to potential attack. Of 14 species in 12 genera exposed in this manner, none were attacked (Morrison and Porter, 2006). Solenopsis geminata (F.) was either attacked at a very low rate (4% of rate on target [Gilbert and Morrison, 1997; Porter and Alonso, 1999]) or not at all (Morrison and Porter, 2006), or without production of fly progeny (Porter, 1998).
Species Group
Formicidae (2 species in 1 species group within 1 genus, Solenopsis)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Texas, USA (Porter et al., 1999).
Establishment:Releases in Texas failed (Porter et al., 1999).
Impact:Not applicable
Callcott et al., 2011
Gilbert and Morrison, 1997
Morrison and Porter, 2005
Morrison and Porter, 2006
Porter and Alonso, 1999
Porter et al., 1999
Porter, 1998
Parasitoid

Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff
Encyrtidae

For species description, see (Noyes and Schauff, 2003). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
2002 USA, Guam (likely native to Mexico but collected in Puerto Rico; its release in Puerto Rico is not recorded) (G. Reddy, pers. comm.; Meyerdirk et al., 2004)Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink
Pseudococcidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. No other hosts are recorded in the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no species other than the target pest as hosts.
Possibly Species
Pseudococcidae (known only from the target pest, but literature is limited and species only described since 2003)
E?/I?
Release:Released in Guam (Meyerdirk et al., 2004).
Establishment:Establishment of P. mexicana in Guam is undetermined.
Impact:The target pest was reduced >99% within one year of the introduction of this parasitoid and another species used in the program, Acerophagus papaya. No separate accounting of impact by parasitoid species was found for Guam.
G. Reddy, pers. comm.
Meyerdirk et al., 2004
Noyes and Schauff, 2003
Noyes, 2017
UF/IFAS factsheet, not dated
Parasitoid

Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Psyllaephagus quadricyclus Riek. Note: two parasitoids of two other invasive eucalypt psyllids were self-introduced: (1) Psyllaephagus parvus Riek (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on lemon gum psyllid, Cryptoneossa triangula Taylor and (2) Psyllaephagus perplexans Cockerell on the lerp-forming spotted gum psyllid, Eucalyptolyma maideni Froggatt (Jones et al., 2011). These are not included in this work because they were not deliberately introduced but are referenced here to prevent confusion.
2000 USA, California (from Australia) (Dahlsten et al., 2003)Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore
Psyllidae

Red gum lerp psyllid
HRT+
Host-range testing was done before release. None of 3 non-target eucalyptus-feeding psyllids tested (Trioza eugeniae Froggatt, Ctenarytaina eucalypti [Maskell], Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore) were attacked (Dahlsten et al., 2003). Literature hosts include only Spondyliaspis cf. plicatuloides (Froggatt) (Psyllidae) (Bush et al., 2017). Noyes (2017) lists 4 species as hosts; however, 2 were tested by Dahlsten et al., 2003) and found not to be parasitized (B. melaleucae and C. eucalypti). Disregarding those, the other psyllids listed as hosts by Noyes (2017) are (1) Creiis costatus (Froggatt) and (2) Glycaspis granulata (Froggatt).
Family
Psyllidae* (4 species in 3 genera). *The family Psyllidae has been recently subdivided into additional families, and the placement of these genera in that new taxonomic arrangement has not been determined here.
E+/I+
Release:Released in California, USA (Dahlsten et al., 2003).
Establishment:Established in California (Dahlsten et al., 2003).
Impact:Indications are that control in some parts of California are substantial, with a 50% reduction in female psyllids being observed within a year or so of release at several sites (Dahlsten et al., 2003). Pest suppression by P. bliteus is, however, mostly limited to coastal California, and less control has occurred in the inland, hotter areas (Sime et al., 2004; Daane et al., 2012).
Bush et al., 2017
Daane et al., 2012
Dahlsten et al., 2003
Jones et al., 2011
Noyes, 2017
Sime et al., 2004
Villa Castillo, 2005
Parasitoid

Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Psyllaephagus quadricyclus Riek.
2001 northern Mexico (from Australia via California USA) (Villa Castillo, 2005)Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore
Psyllidae

Red gum lerp psyllid
HRT+
Host-range testing was done before release in the United States, but not separately for Mexico. None of 3 non-target eucalyptus-feeding psyllids tested (Trioza eugeniae Froggatt, Ctenarytaina eucalypti [Maskell], Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore) were attacked (Dahlsten et al., 2003). Literature hosts include only Spondyliaspis cf. plicatuloides (Froggatt) (Psyllidae) (Bush et al., 2017). Noyes (2017) lists 4 species as hosts; however, 2 were tested by Dahlsten et al., 2003) and found not to be parasitized (B. melaleucae and C. eucalypti). Disregarding those, the other psyllids listed as hosts by Noyes (2017) are (1) Creiis costatus (Froggatt) and (2) Glycaspis granulata (Froggatt).
Family
Psyllidae* (4 species in 3 genera). *The family Psyllidae has been recently subdivided into additional families, and the placement of these genera in that new taxonomic arrangement has not been determined here.
E+/I?
Release:Released in northern Mexico (Villa Castillo, 2005).
Establishment:Established in ten states in Mexico (Villa Castillo, 2005).
Impact:Outcome not reported.
Bush et al., 2017
Dahlsten et al., 2003
Noyes, 2017
Villa Castillo, 2005
Parasitoid

Psyllaephagus pilosus Noyes
Encyrtidae

Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1993 USA, California (from Australia) (Dahlsten et al., 1998a)Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell)
Psyllidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. This parasitoid is likely a eucalypt specialist, conferring high host specificity where eucalypts are not native. No other hosts are known from the literature. Noyes (2017) lists no other species as hosts.
Possibly Species
Psyllidae (known only from the target pest, but literature is very limited)
E+/I+
Release:Released in California, USA (Dahlsten et al., 1998a,b).
Establishment:Established in California (Dahlsten et al., 1998a,b).
Impact:Control of pest was complete within a year (Dahlsten et al., 1998a), and economic benefit ratio to blue gum foliage growers was between 9 and 24 to 1 (Dahlsten et al., 1998b).
Dahlsten et al., 1998a
Dahlsten et al., 1998b
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Psyllaephagus yaseeni Noyes
Encyrtidae

Recorded as P. rotundifolius or P. nr rotundiformis before Noyes (1990) described it as a new species (Beardsley and Uchida, 1990). Noyes (2017) lists no synonyms.
1987 USA, Hawaii (from Tobago) (Nakahara and Funasaki, 1987)Heteropsylla cubana Crawford
Psyllidae

HRT+
Host-range testing was done before release. Two non-target Heteropsylla species (H. huasachae Caldwell and H. fusca Crawford) were accepted as hosts (Nakahara and Funasaki, 1987). Noyes (2017) lists 1 additional species as a host: Heteropsylla incisa (Šulc).
Genus
Psyllidae (4 species in 1 genus, Heteropsylla)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Hawaii (Nakahara and Funasaki, 1987).
Establishment:Established in Hawaii (Beardsley and Uchida, 1990).
Impact:Impact not determined.
Beardsley and Uchida, 1990
Nakahara and Funasaki, 1987
Noyes, 1990
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Psyttalia carinata (Thompson)
Braconidae

Synonyms include Psyttalia rhagoleticola (Sachtleben) and a former generic placement as an Opius species (Yu, 2017).
1985–1991 Canada, Ontario (from Austria, Switzerland, Germany) (Hoffmeister, 2002)Rhagoletis cerasi (L.)
Tephritidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Host literature records include Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew) in Europe, where this North American species is invasive (Schuler et al., 2016).
Genus
Tephritidae (3 species in 1 genus, Rhagoletis)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Ontario, Canada (Hoffmeister, 2002).
Establishment:Did not establish in Ontario (Hoffmeister, 2002).
Impact:Not applicable
Hoffmeister, 2002
Schuler et al., 2016
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Psyttalia carinata (Thompson)
Braconidae

Synonyms include Psyttalia rhagoleticola (Sachtleben) and a former generic placement as an Opius species (Yu, 2017).
1985–1991 Canada, Ontario (from Austria, Switzerland, Germany) (Hoffmeister, 2002)Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)
Tephritidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Host literature records include Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew) in Europe, where this North American species is invasive (Schuler et al., 2016).
Genus
Tephritidae (3 species in 1 genus, Rhagoletis)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Ontario, Canada (Hoffmeister, 2002).
Establishment:Did not establish in Ontario (Hoffmeister, 2002).
Impact:Not applicable
Hoffmeister, 2002
Schuler et al., 2016
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri)
Braconidae

Formerly in Opius; no other synonyms (Yu, 2017). The Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) species complex has been described, with the species P.humilis as a member that is sub-Saharan in distribution (Rugman-Jones et al., 2009).
2006–2013 USA, California (from Namibia) (Daane et al., 2017). Releases of “Opius humilis” were made in California in 1934 against Rhagoletis completa, with next year recoveries (Boyce, 1934). However, this usage of the name can no longer be coordinated with modern taxonomy of the genus. No Psytallia species was recovered by Kent Daane from samples of walnut husk fly in California, suggesting it did not establish (K. Daane, pers. comm.).Bactrocera oleae Gmelin
Tephritidae

HRT+
Host-range testing was done before release. One non-target species (of two tested) was attacked (Parafreutreta regalis [Munro]), but one, (Chaetorellia succinea [Costa]), was not (Daane et al., 2011). Host literature records include Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Ehrhorn, 1915). Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Boyce, 1934) also appears in the literature in association with the name Opius humilis but that name’s usage in the 1930s cannot be accurately matched to current use of the names in the genus and so is unreliable.
Family
Tephritidae (3 species in 3 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in California, USA (Yokoyama et al., 2011; Daane et al., 2011, 2017).
Establishment:While field reproduction did occur in California following release, the parasitoid apparently failed to overwinter, even at mild coastal sites (Daane et al., 2017).
Impact:Field cage trials done in California from 2006 to 2009 (Wang et al., 2011), but no field population could be established to evaluate the species’ impact (Daane et al., 2017).
Boyce, 1934
Daane et al., 2011
Daane et al., 2017
Ehrhorn, 1915
K. Daane, pers. comm.
Rugman-Jones et al., 2009
Yokoyama et al., 2011
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri)
Braconidae

Formerly in Opius; no other synonyms (Yu, 2017).
2006–2013 USA, California (from Kenya and South Africa) (Daane et al., 2017)Bactrocera oleae Gmelin
Tephritidae

HRT+
Host-range testing was done before release. No attack occurred on the 5 non-target tephritids tested: Rhagoletis fausta (Osten Sacken), Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), Euphranta canadensis (Loew), Parafreutreta regalis (Munro), and Chaetorellia succinea (Costa) (Daane et al., 2008, 2011). In field collections in the native range (Africa), P. lounsburyi has been reared only from B. oleae (see references in Daane et al., 2008 [Narayanan and Chawla, 1962; Neuenschwander, 1982; Wharton and Gilstrap, 1983; Wharton et al., 2000]). Literature host records include Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) as a laboratory-rearing host (Billah et al., 2005).
Genus?
Tephritidae (2 species in 2 genera, one of which is a laboratory rearing host)
E+/I?
Release:Released in California, USA (Daane et al., 2011, 2017).
Establishment:Recoveries were made in California (of parasitoids of South African origin) that were determined to be P. lounsburyi (Bon et al. 2017), and establishment has been confirmed (Daane et al., 2017).
Impact:Field cage trials were done in California before release from 2006 to 2009 that showed substantial parasitism (Wang et al., 2011). Post-establishment impact in the field has not yet been determined.
Billah et al., 2005
Bon et al. 2017
Daane et al., 2008
Daane et al., 2011
Daane et al., 2017
Wang et al., 2011
Yu, 2017
Parasitoid

Pteroptrix wanhsiensis (Compere)
Aphelinidae

Noyes (2017) lists one synonym: Casca wanhsiensis Compere.
1986 USA, Maryland (from Korea) (see p. 230 of Barbosa et al., 1994). Released previously in California, USA in 1948-1949 against Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, but did not establish (Flanders, 1956). Unaspis euonymi (Comstock)
Diaspididae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing done before release. Literature host records include (1) Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (Diaspididae) (Flanders, 1956) and (2) Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Constock) (Diaspididae) (Chumakova, 1964). Noyes (2017) lists no other species as hosts.
Family
Diaspididae (3 species in 3 genera)
E-/I-
Release:Released in Maryland, USA (see p. 230 of Barbosa et al., 1994).
Establishment:Not established Maryland (see p. 230 of Barbosa et al., 1994).
Impact:Not applicable
Barbosa et al., 1994
Chumakova, 1964
Flanders, 1956
Noyes, 2017
Parasitoid

Quadrastichus haitiensis (Gahan)
Eulophidae

For species description, see Gahan (1929). Noyes (2017) lists former generic placements in Aprostocetus and Tetrastichus, but no other synonyms.
1998 USA, Florida (from the Caribbean) (Peña et al., 2004). Released earlier (1969) in Florida (Sutton et al., 1972), but apparently did not establish on Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) (Beavers and Selhime, 1975; Hall et al., 2001), but the parasitoid was recovered in Florida from Pachnaeus opalus (Olivier) (Beavers et al., 1980).Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)
Curculionidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing was done before release. Literature host records include the following curculionids: (1) Exophthalmus quadrivittatus (Olivier) (Gahan, 1929); (2) Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) (Wolcott, 1934); (3–4) Diaprepes (Prepodes) vittatus (L.) and Exophthalmus similis Drury (Edwards, 1938); (5) Pachnaeus litus (Germar) (Sutton et al., 1972); and (6) Pachnaeus opalus (Olivier) (Beavers et al., 1980). Noyes (2017) lists one additional weevil as a host: Diaprepes famelicus (Olivier).
Family
Curculionidae (7 species in 3 genera). Attacks eggs of weevils concealed in plant tissues.
E+/I?
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Peña et al., 2004).
Establishment:Established in Florida (Peña et al., 2004).
Impact:Impact not determined.
Beavers and Selhime, 1975
Beavers et al., 1980
Edwards, 1938
Gahan, 1929
Hall et al., 2001
Noyes, 2017
Peña et al., 2004
Sutton et al., 1972
Wolcott, 1934
Parasitoid

Schoenlandella diaphaniae (Marsh)
Braconidae

For species description, see (Marsh, 1986). Former generic placement in Cardiochiles ; no other synonyms (Yu, 2017).
1986 USA, Florida (from South America) (Marsh, 1986)Diaphania hyalinata (L.)
Crambidae

HRT-
No laboratory host-range testing was done before release. Literature hosts include only the 2 target hosts Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll) and Diaphania hyalinata (L.) (Smith et al., 1994).
Genus
Crambidae (2 species in 1 genus, Diaphania)
E+/I?
Release:Released in Florida, USA (Marsh, 1986).
Establishment:Established in Florida (F. Gallardo pers. comm. to J. Peña).
Impact:Not reported.
F. Gallardo pers. comm. to J. Peña